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Preventing HIV and unintended pregnancies: Strategic framework 2011-2015. In support of the Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive. 2nd ed.
[New York, New York], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2012.  p.We are at a turning point for delivering on the promise to end child and maternal mortality and improve health -- marked by bold new commitments. This strategic framework supports one such commitment, the 'Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive'. It offers guidance for preventing HIV infections and unintended pregnancies -- both essential strategies for improving maternal and child health, and eliminating new paediatric HIV infections. This framework should be used in conjunction with other related guidance that together address all four prongs of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This document focuses on strengthening rights-based polices and programming within health services and the community.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):35-41.This paper explores the actors who replaced the agreements about the global development agenda made in the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo 1994 and the 4th UN World Women's Conference in Beijing in 1995 with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It also surveys the processes which shape and affect the exercise of power, which can lead to radical changes.
Supporting community responses to malaria: A training manual to strengthen capacities of community based organizations in application processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
Cologne, Germany, STOP MALARIA NOW!, 2009 Nov. 53 p.This training manual is a product of the STOP MALARIA NOW! advocacy campaign and aims to support community responses to malaria. In particular, this manual aims to improve knowledge and skills of Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in application processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The contents are based on results of the needs assessment 'Capacity Needs of CBOs in Kenya in Terms of Application Processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV /AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)', conducted in June and July 2009.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Belknap Press, 2008. xiv, 521 p.Rather than a conspiracy theory, this book presents a cautionary tale. It is a story about the future, and not just the past. It therefore takes the form of a narrative unfolding over time, including very recent times. It describes the rise of a movement that sought to remake humanity, the reaction of those who fought to preserve patriarchy, and the victory won for the reproductive rights of both women and men -- a victory, alas, Pyrrhic and incomplete, after so many compromises, and too many sacrifices. (Excerpt)
AIDS. 2008; 22 Suppl 2:S9-S17.The University of California, Los Angeles Program in Global Health performed a landscape analysis based on interviews conducted between November 2006 and February 2007 with 35 key informants from major international organizations conducting HIV/AIDS work. Institutions represented included multilateral organizations, foundations, and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this analysis is to assist major foundations and other institutions to understand better the international HIV/AIDS policy landscape and to formulate research and development programmes that can make a significant contribution to moving important issues forward in the HIV/AIDS policy arena. Topics identified during the interviews were organized around the four major themes of the Ford Foundation's Global HIV/AIDS Initiative: leadership and leadership development; equity; accountability; and global partnerships. Key informants focused on the need for a visionary response to the HIV pandemic, the need to maintain momentum, ways to improve the scope of leadership development programmes, ideas for improving gender equity and addressing regional disparities and the needs of vulnerable populations, recommendations for strengthening accountability mechanisms among governments, foundations, and civil society and on calling for increased collaboration and partnership among key players in the global HIV/AIDS response. (Author's)
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52. Addendum 1: International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2003 Feb 27. 435 p. (E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1)The present report contains a detailed review of international, regional and national developments and best practices for ways and means of combating violence against women over the period 1994-2003. The report is not fully comprehensive, some regions or countries may have been reported on in greater detail than others, reflecting the information that was available to the Special Rapporteur. In order to provide a systematic analysis of global developments, the Special Rapporteur requested information on efforts to eliminate violence against women, its causes and consequences, from Governments, specialized agencies, United Nations organs and bodies, and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and academics. The Special Rapporteur expresses her gratitude to all who kindly provided information, which contributed significantly in the preparation of her report. (excerpt)
Journal of International Women's Studies. 2007 Nov; 9(1):212-233.This essay analyzes the contributions of three Young Women's Christian Association leaders who chaired the nongovernmental organization forum planning committees during the UN Decade for Women (1975-1985). It assesses the effectiveness of their leadership and addresses questions of distribution and uses of power within women's international NGOs and in relationship to the global feminist community. (author's)
Gender and child protection policies: Where do UNHCR's partners stand? A report by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006 Jul. 15 p.The purpose of this study is to gauge what kind of policies, tools and accountability mechanisms are in place at partner organizations with respect to gender equality and child/youth protection. The aim is to find out if and what specific policies exist and the level of partner interaction with UNHCR to implement AGDM through information sharing and training. This report is not meant to evaluate UNHCR partners' policies and tools. Rather, it is meant to make a contribution to UNHCR and partners' work by documenting progress and good practice as well as obstacles and challenges they face in mainstreaming. As pertinent, these survey findings are to be taken into consideration within the overall context of strengthening UNHCR's multi-year AGDM global rollout by enhancing its impact through the promotion of relevant policy and accountability mechanisms development with its key partners. (excerpt)
Human Rights Dialogue. 2003 Fall; (10):14-15.Historically, the popular understanding of torture has helped to maintain a gender-biased image of the torture victim: it is the male who pervades the political and public sphere and thus it is the male who is likely to be targeted by state violence and repression. Such an image, however, neglects women's experiences as victims and survivors of torture. Until recently, women's human rights organizations often did not pursue women's issues within the framework of the mainstream human rights treaties but instead concentrated on CEDAW. While this tendency is logical--CEDAW is an important and effective instrument for ensuring specifically women's rights--it is equally important to draw on the strengths of other human rights tools. (excerpt)
Contact. 2004 Jan; (177-178):21-22.The scaling up HIV and AIDS response as a strategy for improving access to prevention, care and treatment as well as mitigating the socioeconomic impact of HIV/ AIDS is a noble idea. Providing more quality benefits to more people over a wider geographical area more quickly, more equitably and more lasting should be the basic principle. The three by five (3x5) initiative by WHO offers a great opportunity to examine community participation and its nobility cannot be down played yet there are gaps and areas to be addressed in order to achieve the desired objectives. The historical events cannot be left out while considering scaling up strategies. Mobilizing communities is a principle which is well known following the Alma-Ata Declaration in 1979, but which has been applied differently by different stakeholders. Some of the initiatives served the communities well for a good number of years with many benefits, but later the initiatives were difficult to sustain for various reasons. It is therefore imperative that the lessons learnt in the Primary Health Care (PHC) concept be analyzed and used if similar concepts are being used in scaling up. (excerpt)
Proposal for the 2006 UNGA resolution on the rights of the Child-- text on violence against children.
Geneva, Switzerland, NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2006 Oct 2. 4 p.The resolution should be used to ensure that States endorse the SG's Report and its recommendations (both the overarching and the setting-specific ones) and commit to its full implementation. The UNGA resolution needs to highlight and reinforce States' obligations to prohibit and condemn all forms of violence against children, including all corporal punishment, traditional practices and sexual violence. The resolution should establish the mandate of a Special Representative on Violence against Children for 4 years, to ensure systematic follow-up to the Study and to work with relevant UN agencies, special mechanisms, NGOs and civil society, children and others to prevent and eliminate violence against children. The resolution should call for voluntary contributions from governments to support the core costs of a small but functional secretariat. Voluntary contributions should ideally come from a wide range of countries, especially from those which have been involved throughout the Study process and hosted national and regional consultations and follow-up. North-South and East-West ownership needs to continue in order to ensure that VAC is recognized as a global problem and therefore addressed and tackled everywhere. Voluntary contributions can range in size. (excerpt)
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region [WHR], 2002 May 15.  p.On April 3, 2002, Steven Sinding, director-general designate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, delivered a speech to the Commission on Population and Development in New York. The speech summarizes priorities for evaluating progress made in the implementation of the Program of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Developement in Cairo in 1994. I am making this statement today as director-general designate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the world's leading voluntary family planning organization. IPPF and its member associations are committed to promoting the right of women and men to decide freely the number, timing, and spacing of their children and the right to the highest possible level of sexual and reproductive health. Founded in 1952, it is a federation linking autonomous national Family Planning Associations working in more than 180 countries around the world, initiating, promoting and providing sexual and reproductive health and rights-based services. Celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, IPPF is proud to have an opportunity to address this meeting of the Commission on Population and Development (CPD). (excerpt)
One Country. 2006 Jan-Mar; 17(4):6-8.Not far from the bright lights of Broadway, a little production with a big message played to a standing room only crowd in late February. In a conference room across the street from United Nations, as part of a "side event" to the 50th annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), about 100 people watched 16-year-old Anisa Fedaei portray the daughter of the cocoa farmer in a short play called "Playing the Game." "I am Patience from a developing country and I am 12 years old," said Anisa. "I don't go to school because I help my mother. Our family lives in a small hut. My mother cannot own the land and cannot get credit." But now, "Patience" explains, thanks to the help of a local cooperative, they can invest in the farm and grow enough to trade. (excerpt)
Choices. 2004; 7.I left the 1998 International AIDS Conference in Geneva frustrated and angry. The slogan of the conference--'Bridging the Gap'--was right on target, but none of the major players in the conference (the international agencies, governments, the big pharmaceutical companies) offered a vision, let alone a strategy, for making life-saving treatments available to the millions of HIV-positive people in poor and developing countries. As has been true since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, it was left to HIV-positive people themselves and to advocacy groups to formulate demands, mobilize the political support to challenge the status quo and lead in the development of new policies. Dramatic changes have occurred between 1998's 'Bridging the Gap' and 2004's 'Access for All' conferences. In the intervening six years, an alliance of NGOs from around the world with a bloc of progressive poor and developing countries has won significant victories: It is no longer morally acceptable to do nothing about the death and suffering of millions; The broader global AIDS community has accepted that any effective approach to stopping the epidemic must include treatment as well as prevention and mitigation. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2004. 55 p. (ED-2004/WS/16)The World Education Forum held in Dakar (April, 2000) reemphasized and reiterated the importance of inter-agency partnerships, collaboration and coordination in pursuance of the EFA goals. This facilitated the launching of a number of multi-partner initiatives that focused on specific EFA-related areas and problems requiring special attention as well as the reinforcing of existing ones. EFA flagship initiatives were considered to constitute, among others, one of the mechanisms that would contribute in enhancing and strengthening multi-agency partnership and coherence on EFA related goals. Three years after Dakar, the EFA flagships continue to expand in terms of number of initiatives launched as well as their scope and membership. At present, nine initiatives have been established, involving United Nations organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies and NGOs. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1997 Summer; 34(2): p..Aloisia Woergetter of Austria, Chairperson of the Open-ended Working Group on the Elaboration of a draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, announced on 21 March that the Working Group had reached agreement on the inclusion of an enquiry procedure in the draft optional protocol, which would enable the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to request State parties to the protocol to explain and remedy complaints about serious violations of women's rights. A large majority of participating Governments was in favour of the optional protocol and for the procedures to be followed. She described that as "remarkable", noting that such support had not been thought possible in the past. The optional protocol would greatly strengthen the Convention and allow individual women to actually complain about violations of their rights before the United Nations. "I think, we can easily say that we are, at the moment, the most successful optional protocol drafting group." The group hoped that it could finish its work next year. (excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2005 Apr; 19(1): p..When a reporter first met seven-year-old Bongani in a hardscrabble shantytown near Johannesburg in 2003, it was evident the child was dying. He was too weak for school, stunted and racked by diarrhoea. There was little question that he, like his deceased parents, was infected with the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. It seemed equally certain that he would soon lie in a tiny grave next to theirs -- joining the 370,000 South Africans who died from the disease that year. But when the journalist, Mr. Martin Plaut of the BBC, returned a year later, he found a healthy, laughing Bongani poring over his lesson book. “The transformation,” Mr. Plaut wrote last December, “was remarkable.” That transformation -- and the difference between life and death for Bongani and a growing number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Africa -- has resulted from access to anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) that attack the virus and can dramatically reduce AIDS deaths. For years high costs severely limited their use in Africa. The Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that only about 50,000 of the 4 million Africans in urgent need of the drugs were able to obtain them in 2002. But with prices dropping in the face of demands for treatment access and competition from generic copies of the patented medications, the politics and economics of AIDS treatment have finally begun to shift. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2002 Jun-Jul; 4(2):15.Should the United Nations organize an international population conference in 2004, continuing the series of decennial intergovernmental events that began with the World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974 and continued with the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984 and the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994? The three previous events were initiated by the U.N. Population Commission, now called the Commission on Population and Development. But this time around, the commission has not been able to make up its mind on whether a global event in 2004 will be useful or feasible. In addition to the usual arguments about “the conference fatigue” and the high costs of U.N. conferences, another argument is being advanced by those who are not in favor of a global conference in 2004. They fear that a global conference in 2004 may open up the debate on the concepts of reproductive health, reproductive rights and empowerment of women that were clearly defined and accepted at Cairo. (excerpt)
International Studies Quarterly. 2003 Jun; 47(2):247-274.How, why, and under what conditions are NGOs able to influence state's interests? To answer these questions, I examine the process through which women's organizations succeeded in placing front and center on the UN agenda two issues that had been perceived as exclusively private: violence against women and reproductive rights and health. I develop a theoretical framework drawing on both the agenda-setting and social movement literature. I suggest that NGOs attempt to influence states interests by framing problems, solutions, and justifications for political action. Whether they are successful in mobilizing support is contingent on the dynamic interaction of primarily two factors: ((1)) the political opportunity structure in which NGOs are embedded, comprising access to institutions, the presence of influential allies, and changes in political alignments and conflicts; and ((2)) the mobilizing structures that NGOs have at their disposal, including organizational entrepreneurs, a heterogenous international constituency, and experts. I find that in the beginning of the agenda-setting process, the influence of NGOs is rather limited, their frames are highly contested, and structural obstacles outweigh organizational resources. However, over time the influence of NGOs increases. As they establish their own mobilizing structures, they become capable of altering the political opportunity structure in their favor, and their frames gain in acceptance and legitimacy. (author's)
[Intrafamily violence from the perspective of international conferences: the role of the United Nations] La violencia intrafamiliar desde la perspectiva de las conferencias internacionales: el papel de las Naciones Unidas.
In: Memorias del Encuentro Continental sobre Violencia Intrafamiliar, [compiled by] United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]. Mexico City, Mexico, UNIFEM, 1996. 17-18.The interest and the efforts of the United Nations Organization with regard to the subject of violence and, in particular, intrafamiliar violence has been manifested on very different occasions. The United Nations' Decade for Women (1976-1985) significantly contributed to bring to light the problem of violence against women. Additionally, the issue was debated in 1985 in the Seventh United Nations Conference on Crime Prevention and Treatment of Delinquents. In 1985, the United Nations General Assembly invited the member States to act to prevent violence within the home and suggested measures by which the judicial system could deal with the problem in a just and humanitarian way. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Jan 8; 365:95-96.Introducing a series on complex emergencies in The Lancet less than two months ago, we noted that Jan Egeland, the UN’s emergency relief coordinator on disaster reduction, was frustrated by the lack of attention being given to natural disasters by the international community. Now no longer, one presumes. The devastation wreaked by the south- Asian tsunami that struck on Dec 26, 2004, has kick-started an unprecedented global response. Unqualified human empathy has been translated into unrestrained public acts of giving and helping that have caught more cautious politicians unprepared. There are huge lessons here for all heads of state to learn, not least the need for a massive overhaul in the way nations respond to episodes of humanitarian crisis. In addition to those who have died, the numbers of people at risk of disease defy comprehension. WHO estimates that 5 million people are presently without access to basic services. Over 2 million people have been displaced from their homes. And 15 million children are either orphaned or separated from their families. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. Prepared for the 4th Meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, August 23-25, 2004. 5 p.To shed light on the different ways a human rights based approach (HRBA) is understood, this paper draws on the statements made by the UN system, and selected UN agencies, donor governments and international NGOs on how they define HRBAs and how they use them in their work. Because the UN and bilateral donor assistance agencies work under the broad umbrella of development, attention to “human rights based approaches” to development are also explored. The focus is however on how HRBAs are defined, and how they affect (or not) HIV/AIDS programming, and not on development policies per se. (excerpt)
Report of the fifteenth meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board, Geneva, 23 and 24 June 2004.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul 30. 62 p. (UNAIDS/PCB(15)/04.15)The fifteenth meeting of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Programme Coordinating Board (PCB) took place at the Ramada Park Hotel, Geneva, Switzerland, on 23 and 24 June 2004. The participants are listed in Annex 3. On behalf of Zambia, the outgoing Chair of the PCB, H.E. Dr Brian Chituwo, Minister of Health, opened the fifteenth meeting of the PCB and welcomed all those attending. Dr Chituwo stated that it had been an honour and a privilege on behalf of Zambia to chair the PCB. In light of various international proclamations, including the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the Copenhagen Consensus and the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, he felt that the global community had given a broad mandate to UNAIDS to take the fight against the pandemic to higher levels, and he noted that UNAIDS had responded by scaling up activities significantly. He warned against complacency, however, and cited the particular challenges posed by the “3 by 5” Initiative, including his country’s own efforts to scale up treatment. He paid tribute to Dr Peter Piot (Executive Director of UNAIDS) and his team and thanked them for their close support during his tenure in office. In closing, he urged all to remain united in the fight against HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2004; 364:1801-1813.Major advances have been made during the past decade in the way the international community responds to the health and nutrition consequences of complex emergencies. The public health and clinical response to diseases of acute epidemic potential has improved, especially in camps. Case-fatality rates for severely malnourished children have plummeted because of better protocols and products. Renewed focus is required on the major causes of death in conflict-affected societies—particularly acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, neonatal causes, and malnutrition—outside camps and often across regions and even political boundaries. In emergencies in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly southern Africa, HIV/AIDS is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Stronger coordination, increased accountability, and a more strategic positioning of non-governmental organisations and UN agencies are crucial to achieving lower maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates in complex emergencies and therefore for reaching the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. (author's)
Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 May.  p. (Spotlight No. 1)In the early days of the second wave of the women’s movement, we had our own stories of community participatory development. In 1978 we knew of Lois Gibbs and the women of the Love Canal region of New York whose houses were built on twenty thousand tons of toxic waste; the entire neighbourhood was sick. Gibbs identified that men, women, and children in the area suffered from many conditions—cancer, miscarriages, stillbirths, birth defects, and urinary tract diseases. She collected the evidence. Through petitions, public meetings and use of the media, the Love Canal community took on the School Board, the State and Federal governments, and finally the President. They were rehoused and compensated, and left a legacy to the USA in the form of the Environmental Protection Agency. Similarly, the work of Maria Mies and her students in the early 1980s in Cologne introduced us to ‘action research’. Their research involved women across the city in the collection of evidence of domestic violence sufficient to convince the police and city councillors of the urgent need for the first shelters for battered women. (excerpt)