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  1. 1
    047626

    Different types of organisations involved in providing family planning services in Nigeria.

    PLANFED NEWS. 1987 Dec; 11-3.

    This article provides information on the goals and activities of 13 different types of organizations involved in providing family planning services in Nigeria: Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS); Pathfinder Fund; Program for the Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH)/Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT); Fertility Research Unit, University of Ibadan College of Medicine; Programs of Christian Missions in Nigeria; Program of the Roman Catholic Church; Program of the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC); Program for International Training in Health (INTRAH), University of North Carolina; American College for Nurses and Midwives; Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA); United Nations; Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA); the US Agency for International Development (AID); and the University of Columbia. These organizations are involved in family planning IEC activities, family planning clinical services, community-based distribution programs, and the provision of contraceptive supplies.
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  2. 2
    044798

    IPPF/WHR service statistics for 1987.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    IPPF/WHR FORUM. 1987 Aug; 3(2):10.

    The latest statistics on new acceptors reported by the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) for 1986 show important growth in male methods, condoms and sterilization (up 33%). The area included is Latin America and the Caribbean. The most popular method for new acceptors is the IUD (43% of new users); the second most popular method is the pill (27% of new users); and the third is sterilization (14% of new users). Total increase in new acceptors in clinics and community programs combined was 13%. Other methods, including diaphragms, spermicides, and natural family planning, increased 65% in clinic clients and 223% in community based distribution programs. During 1982-1986, the total number of new acceptors rose by 26% to 1.5 million; total number of visits to a clinic rose 15% to 3.3 million, and the number of clinics rose 39% to 1899.
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  3. 3
    012326

    The involvement of U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers in developing countries.

    Kingham JJ

    In: National Council for International Health [NCIH]. Pharmaceuticals and developing countries: a dialogue for constructive action. Washington, D.C., NCIH, 1982 Aug. 21-6.

    The Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (1972) has endorsed the underlying objective of the Action Program on Essential Drugs which is to provide and improve access to needed drugs and vaccines through public sector programs--government programs--to people in the least developed countries who are now unserved or underserved. Additionally, the industry has endorsed the concepts embodied in primary health care. Although the industry has an important role in these efforts, the principal issues and responsibilities involve public policy decisions, not the private sector. The private sector is an important factor but not the final authority in determining policy directions. Governments have a particular responsibility to set priorities and allocate resources. There has been too much emphasis on the supply of drugs and not enough on the need to improve the health infrastructure. Unless a distribution and delivery system exists, drugs are of little use. In most instances the resources required to establish this infrastructure are far greater than those needed to purchase drugs. The industry feels strongly that any efforts on the part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and national governments to implement this action program should not interfere with existing private sector operations. Industry has expressed its concern about the action program in several different ways. Possibly the most recent and significant one is through the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. Issues have been raised recently concerning the industry's marketing practices for the 3rd world, i.e., the sale of drugs overseas which are not sold in the US and labeling differences between the US and the developing countries. The fact is that the health conditions, disease incidence, and medical judgment of public health and drug authorities vary substantially from country to country. This is the result of different levels of sanitation, nutrition, medical infrastructure, the dispersion of doctors and pharmacists, racial characteristics and other factors. It is arrogant and paternalistic to insist that 1 country's decisions in this area are somehow superior to another's. It is also potentially dangerous in health terms to assert that the standards of 1 particular country should be applied to all. In 1976 the International Federation adopted a policy statement on the international labeling of drugs. The Association position is that the important information concerning side effects and indications should be communicated in the developing countries.
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  4. 4
    006640

    Community family planning services in IPPF.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1981 Dec. 24 p.

    This paper discusses Community-Based Distribution (CBD) programs as a strategy for delivering family planning services at the community level whether through health and other extension workers or lay distributors. Commercial marketing is not discussed. IPPF member family planning associations (FPAs) have been pioneers in establishing CBD programs. In 1979, approximately 40 FPAs were involved in CBD, representing about 80 projects and accounting for 34% of all new acceptors. About half of the projects and half of the new acceptors were in the Western Hemisphere region, where 95% chose oral contraceptives (OCs). OCs were selected by 68% of all new nonclinical clients. The cost per new acceptor in 1979 in CBD programs (with one exception) ranged from 78Z in Thailand to $16.50 in Mexico. Program issues involving the availability of CBD services include: 1) a comprehensive approach to service delivery including adequate and appropriate back up; 2) community participation in the design and delivery of CBD programs; 3) expanding coverage to reach less accessible and disadvantaged populations; and 4) monitoring and evaluating the impact of CBD programs through data collection and constant communication with program participants. The credibility of the distributor in the community is a key factor in ensuring the program's success. The report recommends that OCs of 50 mcg or less be used. Screening of potential acceptors by checklist is adequate; pelvic examination is not needed. CBD projects in Brazil, Colombia, India, Lebanon, South Korea, Thailand, China, Egypt, and the Philippines are described as are projects for 1979. The November 1981 IPPF policy statement supporting community-based family planning services is included.
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  5. 5
    263030

    Overview: 1975. Contraceptive services of the family planning programs of IPPF in the Western Hemisphere.

    MARTON J

    New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemsisphere Region, Medical Department, Nov. 1976. 28 p

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  6. 6
    091166

    People without choice: report of the 21st Anniversary Conference of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    ABEL-SMITH B

    London, IPPF, 1974. 68 p.

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  7. 7
    031613

    Summary: field trip report, Agency for International Development, Sri Lanka, (Colombo, Kalutara, Kandy and Nuwara Eliya), July 14 to August 2, 1982.

    Johnson WH

    [Unpublished] 1982. 19 p.

    This report, prepared for the US Agency for International Developement (USAID), provides a description and assessment of the 4 social marketing programs operating in Sri Lanka, an inventory of the program's current contraceptive supplies, an estimate of the programs' supply requirements for 1983-85, and several recommendations for improving social marketing activities in the country. The assessment was made during a brief visit to Sri Lanka in the summer of 1982. Supply requirements were difficult to assess since there is little coordination between the programs. The programs are supplied by a variety of donor organizations, and record keeping is inadequate in some programs. The 4 programs are operated by 1) the Family Health Bureau (FHB) of the Ministry of Health, 2) the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASIL), 3) Population Services International (PSI), and 4) Community Development Services (CDS). The FHB program sells oral contraceptives (OCS) and condoms. During 1983-85, most of the program's supplies are expected to be obtained form the UN Fund for Population Activities. The FPASIL program was initiated in 1974 and distributes 10 brands of condoms and 3 brands of OCS. The program receives supplies from the International Planned Parenthood Federation and USAID. The PSI program trains Ayurvedic practitioners to distribute OCs and condoms. Most of the contraceptives are distributed free of charge but some are marketed. The program obtains its supplies from the FHB stocks and distributes them to the practitioners via the postal system. The Community Development Service is a privately run organization which conducts a variety of projects including the marketing of OCs and condoms through health workers and Ayurvedic practitioners. The program is supplied by several donors and is currently requesting condoms from USAID. Detailed information on the program is unavailable; however, it appears that the program overestimated its contraceptive needs for 1983. Between 1975-82, the proportion of married women of reproductive age relying on traditional methods increased from 17%-25%, the proportion relying on sterilization increased from 13%-17%, and the proportion using other modern methods increased from 11%-13%. In 1982, the proportion using OCs was 2.64% and the proportion using condoms was 3.19%. The marketing programs distribute primarily condoms and OCs. Estimated USAID delivery requirements for 1983 included 3,500,000 condoms for the FHB and FPASIL programs and 700,000 cycles of OCs for the FPASIL program. Requirements for 1984 could be estimated only for the FPASIL program and included 800,000 OC cycles and 8,500,000 condoms. The Ministry of Health should commission an outside review of all social marketing activities to identify appropriate and complementary functions for the 2 major programs (FPASIL and FHB) and a local review of the Ayurvedic practitioner training and distribution programs of CDS and PSI. Condoms provided by USAID for the FHB and CDS programs should differ in brand and packaging from those marketed by FPASIL. The progrms' service statistics and logistics should be improved. Research should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to the increase in the use of traditional contraceptive methods and to explore why only minimal increases in the use of modern contraceptives have occurred since 1975. Consideration should be given to setting up a central warehouse for stocking the nation's contraceptive supplies. All programs would then obtain their supplies from this central facilities. USAID assistance would be available for implementing a number of these recommendations.
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