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NUFUSBILIM DERGISI/TURKISH JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1987; 9:63-73.From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
People. 1981; 8(2):26.The slowed down world population growth rate masks the magnitude of the net population increase. This warning comes in the new set of population projections prepared by the United Nations Population Division in 1980. These estimates, submitted to the 21st session of the Population Commission in January, indicate that the annual rate of growth of the world population had declined from 2% about 15 years ago to 1.7% and may decline to 1.5% by the end of the century. The world population has increased by 1.9 billion in the last 3 decades; 2.6 billion people are expected to be added in the coming 3 decades, bring the world population to 7 billion by 2010. About nine-tenths of the annual increase is having to be absorbed in the developing countries, despite a substantial decline in the birth rate of 41/1000 in 1960-65 to 32/1000 at present. Most of the decline has occurred in China and in several Asian and Latin American countries. Little or no decline is yet apparent in South Asia and Africa. By 1978 only 7 out of 24 Western developed countries had fertility rates above the replacement level. The UN Population Division's analyses of government policies in 165 countries show that 84 governments consider fertility levels in their countries to be satisfactory, 22 too low and 59 too high. 17 governments have policies to increase fertility and 39 to reduce it.
Intercom. 1980 May; 8(5):1, 12-15.Africa's growing population problems and the role of family planning in Africa were described. Population growth in Africa is accelerating more rapidly than in any other region of the world and population pressures on the continent are just beginning to emerge. The current population of Africa is 472 million and constitutes 10% of the world's population. Most countries in Africa are just entering the early phase of the demographic transition. Mortality rates are declining but the birth rates remain high. Africa's growth rate increased from 2% to 3% from 1955-1980. In sub-Saharan Africa vital statistics are not available for many of the countries and population estimates are based on inadequate data. Fertility is high in the region and the average woman has 6-7 children. Population problems in the region are masked to some extent because population density is still relatively low; however, land pressures are beginning to mount as overgrazed, deforested, eroded, and exhausted land areas increase. Per capita food production is declining by 1.4% annaually due in part to the outdated transportation and marketing systems which characterize many of the sub-Saharan countries. In many of these sub-Saharan countries there is a lack of interest in family planning and some governments have pronatalist population policies. Family planning is viewed by some Africans as an attempt on the part of Westerners to suppress the native population. National governments often hesitate to establish family planning programs for fear that these will be interpreted as veiled attempts to reduce the political influence of opposing tribal groups. Most family planning activities in sub-Saharan countries are financially supported by private and international organizations. Major contributors in 1979 were UNFPA, which provided $18 million primarily for the collection of demographic data, and IPPF, which spent $7.5 million on family planning programs. Other organizations providing assistance are 1) the Pathfinders, 2) the Population Council, and 3) the Family Planning International Assistance. USAID provides direct funding and also funds bilateral and regional programs through individual governments.
Teheran, Iran, Population and Manpower Bureau, Planning Division, November 1973. 75 p. (Unpublished)The structure and characteristics of Iran's current population are analyzed, and an attempt is made to review and analyze Iran's population evolution and determine its future trends in the light of the research studies conducted by various organizations. Until the second half of the nineteenth century there was no population census in Iran. The period after 1946 was marked by an increase in the annual population growth rate. The size and structure of the population bears a direct relationship to changes in the economic and social conditions. The population strategy of Iran is designed so as to slow down the rate of population growth by reducing the birthrate. This study demonstrated that it cannot be expected that the population growth rate will decrease to 2% annually in the next 20 years. The death rate will decrease to .8% and the birthrate will decrease to 3-3.4%. The article provides tables on the size of population, living conditions, population changes, and urbanization trends based on the projections of this study.