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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Occupational transmission of bloodborne diseases to healthcare workers in developing countries: meeting the challenges.

    Lee R

    Journal of Hospital Infection. 2009 Aug; 72(4):285-91.

    Healthcare workers have increased chance of acquiring bloodborne pathogens through occupational exposure in developing countries due to a combination of increased risk and fewer safety precautions. As loss of workers can seriously undermine developing health systems, it is important that risks are minimised. A literature search was conducted to investigate the risks of transmission of three pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses; and to identify factors that influenced the risk with reference to developing countries. There are many difficulties faced by developing countries in minimising the risk of occupational exposure. Efforts have been made to address the problems both on international and national levels. It is imperative that all healthcare workers are protected in order to prevent the loss of such a crucial component of developing healthcare systems.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Increase in clinical prevalence of AIDS implies increase in unsafe medical injections.

    Reid S

    International Journal of STD and AIDS. 2009 May; 20(5):295-9.

    A mass action model developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the re-use of contaminated syringes for medical care accounted for 2.5% of HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa in 2000. The WHO's model applies the population prevalence of HIV infection rather than the clinical prevalence to calculate patients' frequency of exposure to contaminated injections. This approach underestimates iatrogenic exposure risks when progression to advanced HIV disease is widespread. This sensitivity analysis applies the clinical prevalence of HIV to the model and re-evaluates the transmission efficiency of HIV in injections. These adjustments show that no less than 12-17%, and up to 34-47%, of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa may be attributed to medical injections. The present estimates undermine persistent claims that injection safety improvements would have only a minor impact on HIV incidence in Africa.
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