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Landscape for safe injection, phlebotomy, and waste management equipment. Standards, specifications, and products.
Boston, Massachusetts, JSI, MMIS, 2010 Jan.  p.This document provides guidelines for implementing a procurement policy for safe injection and brings together issues that countries should consider when developing and implementing the procurement aspect of a national injection safety policy. The document points out issues to consider in transitioning from policy to implementation, regulatory factors, public-sector considerations, and the need to sensitize private-sector manufacturers. It also includes a landscape of manufacturers of safe injection equipment.
Occupational transmission of bloodborne diseases to healthcare workers in developing countries: meeting the challenges.
Journal of Hospital Infection. 2009 Aug; 72(4):285-91.Healthcare workers have increased chance of acquiring bloodborne pathogens through occupational exposure in developing countries due to a combination of increased risk and fewer safety precautions. As loss of workers can seriously undermine developing health systems, it is important that risks are minimised. A literature search was conducted to investigate the risks of transmission of three pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses; and to identify factors that influenced the risk with reference to developing countries. There are many difficulties faced by developing countries in minimising the risk of occupational exposure. Efforts have been made to address the problems both on international and national levels. It is imperative that all healthcare workers are protected in order to prevent the loss of such a crucial component of developing healthcare systems.
International Journal of STD and AIDS. 2009 May; 20(5):295-9.A mass action model developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the re-use of contaminated syringes for medical care accounted for 2.5% of HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa in 2000. The WHO's model applies the population prevalence of HIV infection rather than the clinical prevalence to calculate patients' frequency of exposure to contaminated injections. This approach underestimates iatrogenic exposure risks when progression to advanced HIV disease is widespread. This sensitivity analysis applies the clinical prevalence of HIV to the model and re-evaluates the transmission efficiency of HIV in injections. These adjustments show that no less than 12-17%, and up to 34-47%, of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa may be attributed to medical injections. The present estimates undermine persistent claims that injection safety improvements would have only a minor impact on HIV incidence in Africa.
Best infection control practices for skin-piercing, intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular needle injections.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Blood Safety and Clinical Technology, SIGN, 2001 Nov.  p. (WHO/BCT/DCT/01.02)Best Infection Control Practices for Skin-Piercing Intradermal, Subcutaneous, and Intramuscular Needle Injections. Use sterile injection equipment; Use sterile injection equipment; Prevent needlestick injuries to the provider; Prevent access to used needles; Prevent access to used needles. (excerpt)