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  1. 1

    National Seminar on Population and Development in Malawi, 5 - 9th June, 1989, Chancellor College, Zomba. Report.

    University of Malawi. Chancellor College. Demographic Unit

    Zomba, Malawi, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, 1989. ix, 223 p. (UNFPA Project MLW/87/PO1)

    The role of population in planning for socioeconomic development in Malawi was the topic of a National Seminar held by the Demographic Unit of the University of Malawi in June 1989. 64 participants from the University, Government departments, parastatal, non-governmental and international agencies presented 41 papers. Each of these background and seminar papers are summarized, and 64 recommendations are outlines. The seminar was considered further evidence that the government is becoming aware that fertility, 7.6 children per woman, and related infant mortality, 150/1000, are excessive, according to the UNFPA representative in his keynote address, and the hope that future planning will take population into account. The range of topics covered in the papers included demography, spatial distribution, macroeconomic factors in development, refugees, industry, small enterprises, health services, water supply, education, rehabilitation, status of women, food supply, land ownership, sustainable resources and manpower development. Recommendations specified actions on rural development, roads, legalizing tobacco growing, fuelwood, equalizing food security, taxes, savings, finance, antitrust regulations, incentives for health service in rural areas, housing, female education, handicapped persons, refugees, data and research and many other issues.
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  2. 2

    Some approaches to the study of human migration.

    Nabi AK; Krishnan P

    In: Methodology for population studies and development, edited by Kuttan Mahadevan, Parameswara Krishnan. New Delhi, India, Sage, 1993. 82-121.

    Migration can be obligatory (transfers in job, joining husbands place) or sequential (the movement of dependents), besides being voluntary. The major data sources for the study of migration are population censuses, sample surveys, and population registers. A continuous population registration system has been in existence in the Scandinavian countries, a few West European countries, Taiwan, Israel, Japan, and some East European countries. Developed countries have developed techniques of estimating migration without sample surveys by using other sources built in within their social system. The censuses are the most widely used data sources for migration research where direct questions on migration (place of birth, place of last residence, place of residence at a specific prior date, and duration of residents) set the focus on the volume, level and pattern, differential selectivity, origin, and destination. Migration can be measured by the direct (census or sample survey) and indirect (residual methods from vital statistics and survival ratios based on census and/or life table) approaches. Selectivity in migration deals with differences in migration related to age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, ethnic origin, and language. Other topics addressed include determinants of migration; statistical generalizations and laws (Ravenstein's laws, push-pull theory); typologies; economic, spatial, behavioral, and mathematical approaches in migration theory; Zelinsky's hypothesis of migration/mobility transition; and the demographic, economic, and social consequences of migration. The migration process in multidimensional, time and space specific, thus a single theory is not comprehensive enough to explain its dynamics. Instead, a series of theories can be formulated: theory of migration for peasants, theory of migration for intellectuals, and theory of migration for cultural groups. This necessitates the development of comprehensive typologies of migration.
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  3. 3

    1991 ESCAP population data sheet.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division

    Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, Population Division, 1991. [1] p.

    The 1991 Population Data Sheet produced by the UN Economic and social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) provides a large chart by country and region for Asia and the Pacific for the following variables: mid-1991 population, average annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, male life expectancy at birth, female life expectancy at birth, % aged 0-14 years, % aged 65 and over, dependency ratios, density, % urban, and population projection at 2010. 3 charts also display urban and rural population trends between 1980 and 2025, the crude birth and death rates and rate of natural increase by region, and dependency ratios for 27 countries.
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  4. 4

    Basis for the definition of the organization's action policy with respect to population matters.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    [Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)

    This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
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  5. 5

    [Statistical country yearbook: members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1984] Statisticheskii ezhegodnik stran--chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi, 1984.

    Sovet Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi

    Moscow, USSR, Finansy i Statistika, 1984. 456 p.

    This yearbook presents general statistical information for member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. A section on population (pp. 7-14) includes data on area and population; population according to the latest census; average annual population; birth, death, and natural increase rates; infant mortality; average life expectancy; marriages and divorces; urban and rural population; and population distribution by social group. (ANNOTATION)
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  6. 6

    With firm resolve: family planning in China.

    Laquian AA

    Development Forum. 1986 Jan-Feb; 14(1):3.

    China has accelerated its family planning efforts. In 1979 a national policy of 1 child per couple was launched and has been vigorously pursued. Thus far, China's program has had remarkable success. The rate of natural increase was nearly halved in 10 years, from 23.4/1000 in 1972 to 12/1000 in 1982. The average annual population growth rate fell from 2.37% in 1970-75 to 1.17% in 1980-85. Yet, the crisis is far from over. The total population numbers 1.063 billion. The national target is to keep it to 1.2 billion by the end of the century, an increase of less than 20%. On July 1, 1982, after 3 years of intensive preparation, more than 5 million enumerators began the biggest and 1 of the most accurate censuses ever undertaken. The perception of growth which produced the 1 child policy was heightened by the results, which showed China to be the world's 1st "demographic billionaire." The census made it possible to prepare population monographs for each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions of China. The information gathered has stimulated further development of skills in survey design and analysis, data processing, and publication of population information. 3 new training centers have been opened to supply the demographers and statisticians for further census work. The key to China's population strategy is voluntary family planning practice based on accurate information. The State Family Planning Commission and family planning organizations at national and local levels have mobilized hundreds of thousands of community-based workers in massive family planning publicity and education campaigns. In a country where only 2% of the population has television, face-to-face communication is the norm. An extensive network of trained community-level workers is the basis of China's famous primary health care and preventive medicine system which has been so important in improving the country's health and extending life expectancy from under 40 years in 1950-55 to over 65 in 1980-85. The approach links well with the family planning philosophy. Long before an active family planning program was begun, maternal and child health care had included family planning as 1 means of assuring the health of mothers and children. So vast is China and so great its need that the UN Fund for Population (UNFPA) assistance for family planning is concentrated either on pilot schemes or on a "training of trainers" approach. In the 1st phase of UNFPA assistance, 8 maternal and children's hospitals were selected for UNFPA support in advanced care and training. The biggest share of UNFPA assistance to China in its 2nd phase goes to contraceptive development and production.
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  7. 7

    Country statement: Ethiopia.

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 21 p.

    This discussion of Ethiopia focuses on: sources of demographic data; population size and age-sex distribution; urbanization; fertility; marital status of the population; mortality and health; rate of natural increase; economic activity and labor force activity rates; food production; education; population policies and programs; and population in development planning. As of 1983, Ethiopia's population was estimated at 33.7 million. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. Ethiopia has not yet conducted a population census, however, the 1st population and housing census is planned for 1984. The population is young with children under 15 years of age constituting 45.4% of the total population; 3.5% of the population are aged 65 years and older. The degree of urbanization is very low while the urban growth rate is very high. Most of the country is rural with only 15% of the population living in localities of 2000 or more inhabitants. In 1980-81 the crude birthrate was 46.9/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.9. Of those aged 15 years and older, 69.2% of males and 71.3% of females are married. According to the 1980-81 Demographic Survey the estimates of the levels of mortality were a crude death rate of 18.4/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 144/1000. At this time 45% of the population have access to health services. It is anticipated that 80% of the population will be covered by health care services in 10 years time. Ethiopia is increasing at a very rapid rate of natural increase; the 1980 estimation was 2.9% per annum. Despite the rich endowments in agricultural potential, Ethiopia is not self-sufficient in food production and reamins a net importer of grain. Enrollment at various levels of education is expanding rapidly. There is no official population policy. Financial assistance received from the UN Fund for Population Activities and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund for population programs is shown.
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