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New York, New York, UN Women, 2015 Oct. 32 p.Since approximately 1990, peace processes involving the negotiation of formal peace agreements between the protagonists to conflict have become a predominant way of ending violent conflicts, both within and between States. Between 1990 and 2015 1,168 peace agreements have been negotiated in around 102 conflicts, on a wide definition of peace agreements to include agreements at all stages of the negotiations. Peace agreements are therefore important documents with significant capacity to affect women’s lives. However, a range of obstacles for women seeking to influence their design and implementation persists. These include difficulties with accessing talks, achieving equal influence at talks, raising issues of concern for women, and achieving material gains for women as an outcome of the peace process. This report examines what ‘a gender perspective’ in peace agreements might mean, assesses numerous peace agreements from between 1 January 1990 and 1 January 2015 for their ‘gender perspective, and produces data on when women have been specifically mentioned in those peace agreements.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2003. 4 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2003/77)Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and accepted humanitarian rules, as set forth in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto. Reaffirming that all Member States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and to fulfil the obligations they have freely undertaken under the various international instruments. Recalling that Afghanistan is a party to several international human rights instruments and has obligations to report on their implementation. Recalling also the relevant resolutions and decisions of the Commission on Human Rights, the relevant resolutions and presidential statements of the Security Council, the reports of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict (S/2002/1299) and on women, peace and security (S/2002/1154) and the most recent resolution adopted by the Commission on the Status of Women. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Mar 3; 369(9563):720-721.In December, 2006, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) submitted to its governing board a paper on HIV/AIDS and security--a culmination of wide ranging UN discussions on this subject that began with the historic consideration of AIDS in the Security Council in 2000. The paper reprises frequently raised concerns--ie, that high AIDS-related mortality in the military will compromise security in highly affected countries, or that high costs of AIDS will sap public resources needed to ensure security. UNAIDS notes that such destabilisation has not yet occurred, but that "does not mean that… such a threat will not emerge". In such analyses, the effect of AIDS on military strength and public security overshadows what may be a substantially more important link between AIDS and security--ie, the effect of the unfettered pursuit of a public security agenda, including counterterrorism measures, on the lives of people who are most affected by, or vulnerable to, HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 2006; 24(2):99-109.The power of words--and their context in the "American narrative,"--to affect international and domestic health policy, both proposal and implementation, is analyzed. The complexity of the implications for U.S. foreign policy as well as for disease outbreaks and potential bioterrorism are illustrated, with liberal references to the works of novelist James Joyce, film director Frederico Fellini, and economist/political activist Robert Reich. (author's)
On the front line: a review of policies and programmes to address HIV / AIDS among peacekeepers and uniformed services.
Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2003 Aug.  p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against HIV / AIDS; UNAIDS/03.44E)This initiative focuses on mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS in three core areas: International security, with the focus on supporting HIV/AIDS interventions within United Nations peacekeeping operations; National security, targeting uniformed services with particular emphasis on young recruits, future peacekeepers and demobilizing personnel; Humanitarian response, which focuses on vulnerable populations in crisis settings and humanitarian workers. As part of its national security initiative, UNAIDS SHR, in collaboration with UN Theme Groups, is providing support to countries for the development and/or strengthening of national responses targeting national uniformed services and, in particular, young recruits, demobilized personnel and peacekeepers. Approximately 45 countries worldwide are currently supported through the Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Security. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2005. 67 p.It is important to clarify the security dimensions of the HIV/AIDS pandemic because actions taken to confront the disease as matters of domestic policy or foreign aid may differ markedly from those taken to address threats to national security. Understanding the impact HIV is now having, much less forecasting its toll and effects twenty years hence, is difficult. Little scrupulous analysis of the political, military, economic, and general security effects of the pandemic has been performed, both because the area is poorly funded and the problem is extremely complex. The epidemic is unfolding in waves that span human generations, and societies are making incremental adjustments along the way as they try to cope with the horrible impact AIDS is taking, not only in terms of human lives lost, but in the devastation of families, clans, civil society, social organizations, business structures, armed forces, and political leadership. Further, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is occurring primarily in regions that are hard-hit by a range of other devastating diseases, acute and even rising poverty, political instability, and other conditions that may mask or exacerbate the various impacts of AIDS. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2002 Dec; 39(4): p..The Secretary-General's final report on women, peace and security to the Security Council was released on 21 October 2002, coinciding with the second anniversary of the Council's adoption of resolution 1325 (2000), which mandated the Secretary General to carry out a study on the impact of armed conflict on women and girls, women's roles in peace-building and the dimensions of gender in peace processes and conflict resolution. The report contains recommendations on how the United Nations can improve the status of women in peace and security processes, and hasten implementation of the resolution. The study analyzes the effects of armed conflict situations involving women and girls, who are both victims and perpetrators of violence, and whose contributions to all aspects of peace operations-peacemaking, peace-building, humanitarian operations, and reconstruction and rehabilitation-would increase the chances to achieve sustainable peace. The study asserts that there has been a failure to integrate gender perspectives into peace processes and conflict resolution due to a lack of know-how and accountability mechanisms on the part of policy- and decision-makers. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2000 Spring; 37(1): p..Noting with concern the shortfall in funding for refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Africa, the Security Council on 13 January called on the international community to provide the necessary financial resources, taking into account the substantial needs in the continent. Following a briefing by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Sadako Ogata, the Council underlined the unacceptability of using refugees to achieve military purposes in the country of asylum or in the country of origin. It also condemned the deliberate targeting of civilians and practices of forced displacement. Gravely concerned that the alarmingly high numbers of refugees and IDPs did not receive sufficient protection and assistance, the Council underlined the importance of safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel to civilians in armed conflict. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2000 Spring; 37(1): p..The Security Council on 10 January held an open debate on the impact of AIDS on peace and security in Africa. The historic session, during which 40 speakers presented their views, marked the first time that the Council discussed a health issue as a security threat. Secretary-General Kofi Annan said the impact of AIDS in Africa was no less destructive than that of warfare itself. Although HIV/AIDS was a global problem, the fight against AIDS in Africa was an immediate priority. Overwhelming the continent's health services, creating millions of orphans and decimating health workers and teachers, AIDS was causing socio-economic crises which, in turn, threatened political stability. (excerpt)
Human Rights Quarterly. 2005 Nov; 27(4):1149-1199.The violent conflict that erupted in Darfur, Western Sudan, in 2003 has led to grave violations of human rights and humanitarian law, particularly by militias backed by the Government of Sudan (GoS). This article argues that such grave crimes, which are continuing, justify humanitarian military intervention, as diplomacy has failed to prize the GoS into halting the mayhem. It denounces the apparent posture of neutrality by the international community to these atrocities, stressing that such neutrality helps the killers and not the victims. The article also reflects on the continuing security challenges that face Africa and proffer suggestions towards confronting them. There are two kinds of injustice: the first is found in those who do an injury, the second in those who fail to protect another from injury when they can. Man’s inhumanity to man is not only perpetrated by the vitriolic actions of those who are bad. It is also perpetrated by the vitiating inaction of those who are good. (author's)
Poverty, infectious disease, and environmental degradation as threats to collective security: a UN Panel Report.
Population and Development Review. 2005 Sep; 31(3):595-600.Among the documents to be considered at the 2005 World Summit at the UN General Assembly in September is the report of the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. The Panel, chaired by Anand Panyarachun, former Prime Minister of Thailand, brought together 16 prominent individuals to assess current threats to peace and security and the institutional capacity, especially within the UN, to respond to them. Its report, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, was issued in December 2004. Most of the publicity surrounding the report focused on its recommendations for UN reform, especially its proposals for expansion of the Security Council. The first two-thirds of the document, however, is concerned with the substance of collective security issues and prevention strategies. Defining a threat to international security as “any event or process that leads to large-scale death or lessening of life chances and undermines States as the basic unit of the international system,” the Panel identified six clusters of existing or anticipated threats: Economic and social threats (in particular, poverty, infectious disease, and environmental degradation); inter-State conflict; internal conflict (civil war, genocide, other large-scale atrocities); nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons; terrorism; and transnational organized crime. The section of the report (paragraphs 44–73) treating economic and social threats, titled “Poverty, infectious disease and environmental degradation,” is reproduced below. Paragraph numbers have been omitted. (author's)
Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, 2003. 6 p.The Security Council Resolution 1308, adopted on 17 July 2000, addresses the linkages between HIV/AIDS, peace and security. Following up on the implementation of the Resolution, the President of the Security Council (Angola) invited the Executive Director of UNAIDS and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations once again to provide oral reports on 17th of November 2003 on progress in implementing the Resolution. All 15 Security Council members made statements and comments following the briefings by DPKO and UNAIDS, marking a growing commitment to the issue of HIV/AIDS and peace and security. The Council members endorsed and expressed full support for the collaboration between UNAIDS and DPKO in supporting Governments in the development of policies, strategies and programmes to address HIV/AIDS in this context. All delegations welcomed the reports and expressed their satisfaction with progress to date, including the development of UNAIDS technical materials, with special emphasis on the Peer Education Kit for Uniformed Services and the placement of HIV/AIDS policy advisers or focal points at peacekeeping missions. Several delegations praised the efforts made in providing voluntary and confidential counseling and testing facilities at mission level. Some members called for solid monitoring and evaluation mechanisms and there was a request for an assessment of the link between human security and HIV/AIDS. Due to the importance of this issue the Security Council has requested one substantive report from UNAIDS, DPKO and their partners on the progress made to address HIV/AIDS in the context of peace and security, along with suggestions for future action. SHR is working closely with DPKO on the development of this report which will form the basis of a more in-depth discussion on these issues in the Security Council in 2004. (excerpt)
African Affairs. 2004; 103:227-247.In most academic literature refugees are portrayed either as those who lack what national citizens have or as a threat to the national order of things. This article explores the effects of being excluded in such a way, and argues that Burundian refugees in a camp in northwest Tanzania find themselves in an ambiguous position, being excluded from the national order of things — secluded in the Tanzanian bush — while simultaneously being subject to state-of-the-art humanitarian interventions — apparently bringing them closer to the international community. The article explores the ways in which refugees in the camp relate to the international community. Ambiguous perceptions of the international community are expressed in rumours and conspiracy theories. These conspiracy theories create a kind of ontological surety by presenting the Hutu refugees as the victims of a grand Tutsi plot supported by ‘the big nations’. Finally, the article argues that refugees — being excluded from the nationstate and being subject to the government of international NGOs — seek recognition from the international community rather than any nationstate. This does not, however, destabilize the hegemony of the nation-state, as refugees perceive their own position as temporary and the international community as the guarantor of a more just international order in the long run. (author's)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2004 Jun. 29 p.Since its inception, UNICEF’s mandate has involved the rapid response to humanitarian crises. Our continuing presence in more than 150 countries and territories means that we are often on the spot long before, and long after, a crisis or unstable situation occurs. UNICEF’s role in emergencies is to protect children and women, ensure the rigorous application of international standards covering their rights and provide them with assistance. We work with many partners to ensure that this assistance is reliable, effective and timely. Today, as the number of emergencies rises, their complexity is also increasing. They present an added threat to children’s rights. Therefore, our role is now more important than ever before, and our work has adapted to reflect that reality. This document, UNICEF’s Core Commitments for Children in Emergencies (CCCs), builds on our experience in recent crises and outlines our initial response in protecting and caring for children and women. It states our core response at all levels of the organization. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2003 Sep.  p.Armed conflict fuels the spread of HIV in many ways: by the disintegration of communities, displacement from the home, separation of children from their families, and the destruction of schools and health services. Another contributing factor is rape and other human rights abuses that proliferate during wartime. Moreover, the impoverishment that results from conflict situations often leaves women and girls destitute. For many, trading sex for survival becomes the only option. Crowded and unsafe camps for internally displaced persons and refugees expose women and children to the risk of sexual violence. That, combined with inadequate health services and opportunities for learning and recreation, creates a situation that is conducive to the spread of HIV. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2004 Jan. 43 p. (Watch List on Children and Armed Conflict)This paper is a call to action urging the UN Security Council members, the UN system, regional bodies, civil society, and national governments to respond with the resources and remedies proportionate to the grave state of affairs for children in armed conflicts around the globe. It outlines three essential Action Areas where progress must be made to begin to close the gap between international commitments to protect children and the harsh reality that children experience: gross violations of their rights---with impunity. (excerpt)
Civil-Military Alliance Newsletter. 1996 Aug; 2(3):3-4.This article presents excerpts from a speech by Malawi’s First Vice President and Minister of Defence, the Right Honourable Justin C. Malewezi at the opening address to the policy workshop.
Journal of Health Communication. 2003 May-Jun; 8(3):205-206.In an era where microbes know no boundaries, we can embrace the current focus on the threat of biological and chemical weapons as a means to develop and strengthen a new Health Security. Detection, surveillance, communication, and treatment response must reflect 21st century science and execution. In addition to humanitarian values, global Health Security capacity is in the interest of the developed world, so that early warning systems can be in place and also serve as a type of insurance that could hinder the creation of resistant strains. This capacity could also enhance the fight to reduce the toll of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases as well as prepare the world for future non-communicable diseases of great proportion. (excerpt)
WW ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND SECURITY PROJECT REPORT. 1995 Spring; (1):14-23.This article summarizes a forthcoming book, "Contested Ground: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics" that highlights the current theoretical debate and empirical evidence on the concept of environmental security. The article begins with an overview of important events that have shaped the new environmental politics and then outlines the contours of the debates over environmental security and conflict. Then, the article identifies the following main questions that are raised and addressed in the book: 1) What is new and compelling about contemporary perceptions of the relationship between the environment and politics? 2) What are the various meanings currently ascribed to the concept of environmental security, how significant are the differences, and what are the risks involved in using this term? 3) What is the relationship between environmental change and conflict? 4) Can the discourse of environmental security be connected with the formulation and implementation of effective policies? The article ends with a chapter-by-chapter review of the three sections of the book: a one-chapter historical overview, six chapters describing theoretical positions, and six chapters that use case studies to explore the issues. The article concludes that the essays in the book do not resolve the debates but do delineate areas of consensus, principal disagreements, conclusions of recent studies, and remaining concerns to be addressed.