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  1. 1
    046844

    Eradication of indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in the Americas. Plan of action, July 1985.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]. Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI]

    [Washington, D.C.], PAHO, 1985 Jul. 26 p. (EPI-85-102; CD31/7 Annex II)

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) appointed a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) which met in July 1985 to plan eradication of wild poliovirus in the Americas by 1990 by immunization and surveillance. The strategies to be adopted are mobilization of national resources; vaccine coverage of 80% or more of the target population; surveillance to detect all cases; laboratory diagnosis; information dissemination; identification and funding of research needs; development of a certification protocol; and evaluation of ongoing program activities. The expanded immunization program (EPI) will be organized at the country level by setting up National Work Plans, with inventories of resources and identification of participating agencies and donors, under the guidance of national EPI offices. The TAG will be composed of a core of 5 experts on immunization, with additional consultants as needed, meeting quarterly, semi-annually or annually to review progress and publish recommendations. Regional EPI offices will coordinate eradication activities between the Ministries of Health, the 10-11 epidemiologists/technical advisors in each country and all agencies affiliated with the PAHO. Support personnel will be available at the sub-regional and regional level, including support virologists to assist the laboratory network. Appendices are attached showing estimated costs for regional and regional personnel, vaccines, laboratories, and program activities, predicting that the effort will pay for itself 2.3 times over by 2000.
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  2. 2
    037551
    Peer Reviewed

    Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.

    Fiedler JL

    International Journal of Health Services. 1985; 15(2):275-99.

    Until the mid 1960s, Latin American health system reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. For many countries, however, the 1964 Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a 1st step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Its technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively; no single entity is responsible for health sector planning, and the 5-year plans have come to consist of disjointed mini-plans, each reflecting the aims, desires and goals of a particular vested interest group or institution. The Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies such as the InterAmerican Development Bank, USAID, UNICEF, Kreditanstaldt and PAHO, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed additive reform. The government of Guatemala's own commitment to these outside agency funded projects is reflected in the recurrent shortfall of current or operating funds, and in the rapid depreciation of facilities. Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these additive reforms will not last.
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