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  1. 1

    An attainable target?

    El Gamal A

    World Health. 1979 NOv; 6-9.

    Health is not just the absence of disease or infirmity but the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, according to the WHO Constitution. The presence and extent of endemic diseases, the environment, population increase, and health services available are predictable and controllable factors which need addressing. The foremost problem is the establishment of clean and safe water supplies. Immunization against diseases such as smallpox, diptheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and measles is needed along with nutrition education and pre and postnatal care for women and infants. Under the heading of "improved standards of living" comes literacy and economic welfare which can contribute to or impede efforts to attain good health for all by the year 2000. Political upheavals can hamper the implementation of health plans. The countries that most need political stability are the ones plagued by drastic and frequent changes of their political systems. Military hostilities may result in devastation, famine, epidemics, and other health influencing types of suffering. International organizations are required to play a leading role in affecting world public opinion and reducing the suffering resulting from military hostilities and oppressive regimes. If the target of Health for All is to be achieved, many groups will have to cooperate to attain it.
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  2. 2

    Family planning [Editorial].

    Peel J

    PRACTITIONER. 1979; 223(1337):611-2.

    Since the term "family planning" was 1st introduced into medical terminology approximately 50 years ago, the movement has grown and expanded. What was originally intended as contraceptive services for married women, usually of high parity and low socioeconomic status, has spread to unmarried women. When family planning clinics were taken over by and incorporated into the National Health Service, the original role of the Family Planning Association became less clearly defined. Family planning services today include sex education, sexual sterilization, research into reversible methods of sterilization, research into the effect of oral contraceptives on general sex behavior, and infertility clinics. New technological advances in the field of fertility, e.g., artificial insemination, cannot be justified by the health needs of the parents or the social need to lower population. There is some question as to whether public funds should be spent to gratify what are sometimes selfish parental concerns.
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  3. 3

    Science and technology for health promotion in developing countries: 1.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    WHO CHRONICLE. 1979 Nov; 33(11):399-406.

    The World Health Organization's "health for all" goal by the year 2000 appears to be a formidable task. However, many possible obstacles have already been identified, and realistic appraisal of resources suggest that it is possible to overcome these obstacles. Science and technology, along with political commitment and appropriate social organizations have significant roles to play in achieving the health for all objective. For developing countries, political commitment means the allocation of a greater share of health resources to the underserved majority of the population. The current picture of the world health situation shows that approximately 4/5 of the world's population are disadvantaged because of grossly inadequate and sometimes inaccessible systems of health care. Some of the major health problems plaguing the developing world are: l) communicable diseases, including parasitic infections; 2) other diseases such as cancer; cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; mental disorders; 3) environmental health problems (contaminated water; inadequate sewage and waste disposal facilities; poor food hygiene; inadequate housing); 4) minimal standards of family health and planning; 5) inadequate provision of essential pharmaceuticals; 6) use of traditional medicine; 7) psychosocial factors; 8) high technology and costly materials; 9) a great lack of appropriately trained technicians; l0) unavailability of relevant health information; and ll) weak institutional infrastructure.
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  4. 4

    World population policies.

    Singh JS

    In: Singh JS, ed. World Population policies. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1979. 228 p.

    The World Population Plan of Action synthesizes major points raised at the 1974 Bucharest Conference and numerous United Nations resolutions between 1966-74. Population and development are interrelated. Individuals and couples have the rights to decide freely the number and spacing of their children and should have the knowledge and means to do so. Population policies, programs, and goals are to be formulated and implemented at the national level within the context of specific economic, social, and cultural conditions of the respective countries. International strategies cannot work unless the underprivileged of the world achieve a significant improvement in their living conditions. It is recommended that countries with population problems impeding their development establish goals for reducing population growth by 1985. A life expectancy of 50 years is another suggested 1985 goal; also infant mortality rates of less than 120/1000 live births. Networks of small and medium sized cities should be strengthened for regional development and population distribution. Fair and equitable treatment is urged for migrant workers. Population measures, data collection, and population programs should be integrated into economic plans and programs. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to $2 million in 1960 and $350 million by 1977.
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  5. 5

    Draft National Health Policy: comments and suggestions of the Indian Medical Association.

    Indian Medical Association

    JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 1979 Mar 16; 72(6):137-43, 148.

    The International Conference on Primary Health Care called for urgent and effective national and international action to develop and implement primary health care throughout the world. All government agencies should support primary health care by channelling increased technical and financial support to health care systems. Any national health policy designed to provide for its people should recognise the right to health care as a fundamental right of people. The sociocultural environment of the people should be upgraded as a part of health care. The government's expenditure on health should be regarded as an investment, not as a consumption. Health should be a purchasable commodity. Medical education should be reoriented to the needs of the nation. The government should establish as its ultimate goal the provision of scientific medical service to every citizen. Industrial health and mental health disciplines should establish clear-cut methodologies to achieve the same objectives as medical science. Practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine should be allowed to practice only those systems in which they are qualified and trained. Integration of the modern and traditional systems has failed. In order to encourage people to adopt small family size, facilities for maternal and child welfare clinics, coupled with immunisation and nutrition programs, are needed.
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  6. 6

    Action programme on essential drugs.

    WHO Chronicle 33(6):203-208. June 1979.

    The Action Programme on Essential Drugs is an internationally-sponsored program of technical cooperation which was started by the World Health Orgnaization (WHO). The Program aims to: 1) strengthen national capabilities of developing countries in selecting, supplying, distributing, and using essential drugs; 2) strengthen local quality control and production, where possible, of such drugs; and 3) provide essential drugs and vaccines to developing countries. Drugs considered essential will differ from 1 country to another depending on available medical personnel and prevalent diseases. In the next several years, development of primary health services will go concurrently with development of pharmaceutical supply systems adapted to the specific needs of the country's population. Technical cooperation should be facilitated through international assistance. Current activities of the Program in each of the WHO regions are summarized.
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