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New York, New York, UNFPA, . ix, 66 p.This paper discusses Sri Lanka's population policy with special focus upon UNFPA's role in establishing and implementing a successful multi-sectoral family planning program for the country. Progress made in the past years must continue, while ongoing efforts are made to attain the goal of 2.1 TFR by year 2000. A suitable program must be better coordinated with a view to cutting waste and duplication, guarantee an adequate supply of appropriate contraceptive supplies, streamline research operation, more fully implement its educational programs, and recognize women's centrality in population programs, and recognize women's centrality in population programs. UNFPA assistance should be offered to effect such programmatic change and development, with service delivery needs addressed 1st. The Government of Sri Lanka lacks adequate resources to supply calls for an integrated approach focused upon creating a National Coordinating Council; developing a more sophisticated and targeted approach to information, education, and communication; providing contraceptive supplies, software for service delivery, and client counseling; training providers; and improving coordination with other multilateral programs for child care and human resource development. The present population and development situation, the national population program, proposed sectoral strategies for implementation, the role of technical assistance, and general recommendations for external assistance are discussed in detail.
New England Journal of Medicine. 1983 Fall; 61(4):659-86.In this examination of Saudi Arabia's health care accomplishments, it is argued that the World Health Organization's primary health care model is not the most appropriate for Saudi Arabia and countries like it. Saudi Arabia's health care policy is closely linked to its very rapid emergence as a new and distinctive society. Whereas most developing countries export physicians, Saudi Arabia imports them because the demand for physicians services cannot be met by the supply of indigenous physicians. Saudi health care development is very different from that of most of the third world. Although the country does have a great deal of western technology, Saudi Arabia seems to be following a different course of development from both the third world and the West. Unlike the West, the cost of medial technolgoy is not a problem for Saudi Arabia. Rather, it solves the problem of how to allocate its oil wealth to maintain political stability. The Saudis intend to make the best health care available to all its citizens; they are very concerned about the effect of modern technology on tradition. Therefore, the selection of technology is based on its cultural compatability, rather than on its costs. Primary care may be more technological and specialized than in the West. In Saudi Arabia primary health care may eventually be delivered entirely by specialists, rather than by general or family practitioners. The Saudis are expected to develop a health care system that will meet their particular needs. As with Saudi Arabia itself, health care is experiencing unprecedented change. Thus, the emerging Saudi system will be unique and innovative. Some of its accomplishments will be adopted by other developing countries; Western countries may look to Saudi Arabia as a natural laboratory of health care experimentation.
WHO CHRONICLE. 1980; 34(1):20-3.In order to fulfill the goal of "health for all by the year 2000," the countries of Southeast Asia must be encouraged to establish comprehensive drug policies. This would remedy the present situation where access to life-saving drugs and essential drugs is limited and national health resources are wasted on less important medicines. The comprehensive drug policy could streamline every aspect of the pharmaceutical and supply system, ensuring high quality, safety and efficacy of the drugs. Each country's ministry of health should coordinate the program with aid from the WHO Regional Committee. Technical cooperation among the countries of the region is essential and establishment of eventual self-sufficiency with respect to essential drugs is encouraged. Traditional medicine and traditional medical practitioners should be integrated into the existing institutional system. Training of traditional practitioners in the preventive and promotive aspects of primary health care would improve the existing system. Since there is a lack of pharmacists in the region, the training of additional pharmacists should be a priority item in any new comprehensive drug program.
WHO CHRONICLE. 1979 Nov; 33(11):399-406.The World Health Organization's "health for all" goal by the year 2000 appears to be a formidable task. However, many possible obstacles have already been identified, and realistic appraisal of resources suggest that it is possible to overcome these obstacles. Science and technology, along with political commitment and appropriate social organizations have significant roles to play in achieving the health for all objective. For developing countries, political commitment means the allocation of a greater share of health resources to the underserved majority of the population. The current picture of the world health situation shows that approximately 4/5 of the world's population are disadvantaged because of grossly inadequate and sometimes inaccessible systems of health care. Some of the major health problems plaguing the developing world are: l) communicable diseases, including parasitic infections; 2) other diseases such as cancer; cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; mental disorders; 3) environmental health problems (contaminated water; inadequate sewage and waste disposal facilities; poor food hygiene; inadequate housing); 4) minimal standards of family health and planning; 5) inadequate provision of essential pharmaceuticals; 6) use of traditional medicine; 7) psychosocial factors; 8) high technology and costly materials; 9) a great lack of appropriately trained technicians; l0) unavailability of relevant health information; and ll) weak institutional infrastructure.