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Progress Toward Eliminating Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya: Review of Treatment Guideline Uptake and Pediatric Transmission at Four Government Hospitals Between 2010 and 2012.
AIDS and Behavior. 2016 Nov; 20(11):2602-2611.We analyzed prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) data from a retrospective cohort of n = 1365 HIV+ mothers who enrolled their HIV-exposed infants in early infant diagnosis services in four Kenyan government hospitals from 2010 to 2012. Less than 15 and 20 % of mother-infant pairs were provided with regimens that met WHO Option A and B/B+ guidelines, respectively. Annually, the gestational age at treatment initiation decreased, while uptake of Option B/B+ increased (all p's < 0.001). Pediatric HIV infection was halved (8.6-4.3 %), yet varied significantly by hospital. In multivariable analyses, HIV-exposed infants who received no PMTCT (AOR 4.6 [2.49, 8.62], p < 0.001), mixed foods (AOR 5.0 [2.77, 9.02], p < 0.001), and care at one of the four hospitals (AOR 3.0 [1.51, 5.92], p = 0.002) were more likely to be HIV-infected. While the administration and uptake of WHO PMTCT guidelines is improving, an expanded focus on retention and medication adherence will further reduce pediatric HIV transmission.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011.  p.This tool, developed in collaboration between WHO, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) is designed to support countries to strengthen national health strategies by applying human rights and gender equality commitments and obligations. The tool poses critical questions to identify gaps and opportunities in the review or reform of health sector strategies.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS. 1979; 17(2):102-4.A brief summary of the historical development of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) and a review of the organization's recent activities was presented. Efforts to develop an international association of midwives began in 1922. The 1st World Congress of Midwives was held in 1954 and since that time the Congress has met once every 3 years. National midwife associations from 51 countries belong to the ICM. The goals of the organization are 1) to improve the knowledge, training, and professional status of midwives; 2) to promote improved maternal and child care in member countries; and 3) to further information exchange. Since 1961 the ICM and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics have cooperated in a joint study of midwife training and practice. In 1966 the study group completed its 1st report on the status of maternal care around the world and made a number of recommendations for improving the training of midwives and for establishing uniform licensing requirements. It soon became apparent that these problems could not be dealt with on a worldwide basis, and 12 working parties in different regions were established to investigate the problem at the local level and also to make recommendation in regard to providing family planning services in the context of maternal and child health programs. Each working party has a Field Director who seeks to implement the recommendations of the group. Field Directors have also arranged seminars in reproductive health for rural health workers and especially for traditional birth attendants. The ICM also works in cooperation with the European Economic Community, WHO, IPPF, and several other international agencies. The activities of the working parties have received financial support from USAID.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.