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  1. 1
    798488

    The ILO: legislation and working women.

    Korchounova E

    In: Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EF, Sai FT, Senanayake P, eds. Lactation, fertility and the working woman. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 39-44.

    The International Labor Organization's (ILO) conventions and recommendations that apply exclusively to women are of 2 main types: promotional and protective. The protective standards are concerned with providing them with the special protection they need because of their sociological and social function of maternity. Maternity protection is most important for both working mothers and society as a whole. This is becoming a more significant problem because of the increase in the number and proportion of women. The protection of working women in connection with their role as mothers was dealt with in 2 ILO conventions, the Maternity Protection Conventnion and the Maternity Protection Convention (Revised), and 2 recommendations. The 1919 instrument was ratified by 28 States and the 1952 instrument by 17 States (on January 1, 1977). The ILO policy on maternity protection is that maternity must be recognized as a social function and the protection of this function must be recognized as a basic human right. In relation with maternity, women and men require full and free access to information and facilities concerning family planning and the right to decide on family size and the spacing of births. The 1919 Convention provides that the working woman be allowed time to nurse her child. In a large majority of countries, rules provide for rest periods to allow a mother to feed her child during working hours. A number of legislations stipulate explicitly that the pauses for feeding must be allowed in addition to the normal rest periods. The 1952 Recommendation refers to the establishment of facilities for nursing or day care.
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  2. 2
    792636
    Peer Reviewed

    Primary health care and traditional medicine: considering the background of changing health concepts in Africa.

    Bichmann W

    Social Science and Medicine. 1979 Sep; 13B(3):175-82.

    The stress placed on utilizing traditional medical practitioners in fulfilling the basic health needs for citizens of developing countries and the reasons behind the recent enthusiastic endorsement by international agencies and national governments of the primary health care strategy were examined in reference to Africa. In attempting to provide low cost alternative health care systems in Africa, considerable attention was given to developing schemes for integrating traditional medical practitioners into the health care system. Despite these efforts, little integration has occurred. The development of a collaborative form of integration between these two types of medical systems, except in such areas as the utilization of traditional birth attendants, is impossible. In the treatment and diagnosis of disease Western medicine demands the acceptance of the scientific etiology of disease, and this view clashes with traditional conceptions of disease etiology. Under these conditions the only type of integration that can occur is a structural one in which traditional medicine is placed in a subordinate position to Western medicine. Currently, this problem is reflected by the fact that most programs stress the recruitment of young men and women from rural areas for training programs in which only Western oriented medical concepts are taught. Despite the fact that the need to improve the health status of rural populations has been recognized for a long time, concerted efforts to deal with the problem have only recently been undertaken. These recent efforts are economically motivated. The economic value of rural populations as a source for fulfilling the labor needs of urban residents and as a market for the consumer goods produced by urban dwellers has only recently been realized. In order to preserve this labor and market resource, the health and well-being of rural dwellers must now be promoted. Furthermore, the initial emphasis on community involvement in health related decision making has all but disappeared. The seriousness of the committment of agencies and governments to promote community development must, therefore, be questioned.
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