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Advocacy, communication, and partnerships: Mobilizing for effective, widespread cervical cancer prevention.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:57-62.Both human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening/treatment are relatively simple and inexpensive to implement at all resource levels, and cervical cancer screening has been acknowledged as a "best buy" by the WHO. However, coverage with these interventions is low where they are needed most. Failure to launch or expand cervical cancer prevention programs is by and large due to the absence of dedicated funding, along with a lack of recognition of the urgent need to update policies that can hinder access to services. Clear and sustained communication, robust advocacy, and strategic partnerships are needed to inspire national governments and international bodies to action, including identifying and allocating sustainable program resources. There is significant momentum for expanding coverage of HPV vaccination and screening/preventive treatment in low-resource settings as evidenced by new global partnerships espousing this goal, and the participation of groups that previously had not focused on this critical health issue. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Global Health Action. 2015 Sep 18; 8:29034.Background: Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective: This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design: We outline the scope, content, and intended uses / application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions: The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. Copyright: 2015 World Health Organization. Open Access.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004 Oct; 82(10):746-749.The rationale for providing antenatal care is to screen predominantly healthy pregnant women to detect early signs of, or risk factors for, abnormal conditions or diseases and to follow this detection with effective and timely intervention. The recommended antenatal care programme in most developing countries is often the same as the programmes used in developed countries. However, in developing countries there is wide variation in the proportion of women who receive antenatal care. The WHO randomized trial of antenatal care and the WHO systematic review indicated that a model of care that provided fewer antenatal visits could be introduced into clinical practice without causing adverse consequences to the woman or the fetus. This new model of antenatal care is being implemented in Thailand. Action has been required at all levels of the health-care systems from consumers through to health professionals, the Ministry of Public Health and international organizations. The Thai experience is a good example of moving research findings into practice, and it should be replicated elsewhere to effectively manage other health problems. (author's)
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1983 Aug; 29(4):217-9.The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in 1974 based on the belief that most countries already had some elements of national immunization activities which could be successfully expanded if the program became a national priority with a commitment from the government to provide managerial manpower and funds. The federal government of Nigeria quickly adopted the policy of WHO on EPI and urged the state governments to set up administrative arrangements for planning and implementation of EPI. The program started off in Oyo State of Nigeria after a pilot study conducted at Ikire in Irewole Local Government area in 1975. The stated objectives of the programs were: to provide immunization service to at least 85% of the target population e.g. children under 4 years; and to integrate immunization programs into routine activities of all static primary health centers in the state. This study focuses on administration of the immunization program in the Oranmiyan Local Government area of Oyo State, within the structure of the local government health system and the field health administration of the state government. This study shows that the stated objectives of the EPI are not likely to be achieved in the near future because of low coverage of the eligible population, due to inadequate community involvement in the planning and implementation of the program; 2) poor communication between different government departments; and 3) inadequate publicity. The effect of improvement in health status because of immunization programs, has been very difficult to demonstrate in Nigeria because a lack of accurate data on birth, morbidity, and mortality patterns of the population. Other socioeconomic and health factors of significance in the battle against infectious diseases include environmental sanitation, adequate and safe water supply, housing and nutrition. Nevertheless, immunization programs constitute one of the most economical and effective approaches to the prevention of communicable diseases and can produce dramatic effects in the battle to lower infant and childhood mortaltiy rates in the developing countries if they are well implemented.