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Your search found 25 Results

  1. 1

    Nepal: "a problem of governance".

    Bhattarai B

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1993; 2(4):10-3.

    Nepal faces the choice between sustainable development in a fragile mountain environment in balance with a growing population or the continuation of stagnation and inertia. The political change of April 1990 created new optimism for the country's 18.5 million people, 70% of who live in abject poverty despite international aid making up 60% of the development budget. The maternal mortality rate stands at an exorbitant 850 deaths/100,000. The life expectancy of women is lower than that of men, and there is only 1 doctor for every 30,000 people, while 90% of births are not attended by a trained practitioner. The annual population growth rate amounts to 2.1%, which could double population in 30 years. This rate had outstripped crop production on a limited supply of land, resulting in the addition of another 250,000 poor people every year to the total. Government policies are skewed; a major hydroelectric project is planned to be constructed in 1994 despite talk about poverty alleviation. The National Conservation Plan of 1988 is in its 3rd phase of implementation, with plans in forestry, irrigation, livestock, and horticulture also being implemented at the request of the World Bank. Family planning lapsed as the vertical delivery system was replaced by a horizontal one encouraging villages to build sub-health posts providing family planning and primary health care. 700 such village health posts exist among 4000 villages, and another 600 are scheduled to open in 1994. Positive signs of meaningful development efforts include the budgetary shift to education, health care, and clean drinking water provision. Decentralization laws passed in 1992 and subsequent local elections aimed at handing over to local people the responsibility for their development assisted by government funds and technical support. The poor and often illiterate people have the manpower to dig irrigation canals and stabilize hillside terraces; therefore, the ruling party's central policy is to mobilize there human resources for development
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  2. 2


    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. v, 36 p. (Report)

    The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
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  3. 3

    Health trends and prospects in relation to population and development.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 573-97. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    WHO presented a discussion on health trends and prospects in relation to population and development at the World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania, in 1974. Even though many countries did not have available detailed results of 1970 population censuses, WHO was able to determine using the limited available data that both developing and developed countries could still make substantial reductions in death rates. This room for improvement was especially great for developing countries. Infectious diseases predominated as the cause of death in developing countries, while chronic diseases and accidents predominated in developed countries. Life expectancy at birth in developing countries was lower than that in developed countries (48.3-60.3 years vs. 70 years). Any life expectancy gains were likely to be slower after 1970 than during the 1950-1970 period. WHO claimed that by 2000 almost all of the population in developing and developed countries could reach a life expectancy of 60-65 years and 75-80 years, respectively. WHO stressed the complex interactions among population growth, health, and socioeconomic development. Specifically, an improved health status for both individuals and communities would promote socioeconomic development which in turn appeared to reduce natural increase. Some experts have expressed concern that investment in health services spurs population growth because they reduce mortality. Yet the child survival hypothesis indicated that a reduced infant mortality precedes increased demand for family planning methods and subsequent fertility decline. WHO concurred with the hypothesis and advocated that primary health services and family planning are critical to socioeconomic development. Indeed, family planning services should be integrated with maternal and child health services.
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  4. 4

    A communications research and evaluation design for the Korean Family Planning Program.

    Copp BE

    M. A. thesis, Univ. of Chicago, Division of the Social Sciences, Dec. 1973. 90 p.

    In the summer of 1971 the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK), with the concurrence of the Korean government, launched a new phase in the Korean family planning program--"Stop at Two" movement. With this step the 10 year old family program became the 1st in the world to openly advocate and propogate through communications the 2-child family norm. Since then the movement has been vigorously pressed through all communications channels in spite of traditional norms and the need for major outside funding. The decision to actively bring the "Stop at Two" idea to the public was based largely on the implications for the future of the success of the 1st 10 years of the national family planning program. The Korean government has set an optimistic population growth rate target for the next 5 years--1.5 to be achieved by 1976. To reach these goals it is estimated that 45% of the eligible population will have to be regularly using some form of contraception. At 1 time or another the PPFK, supporting the national program, has used every conceivable method of communication to inform, motivate, and persuade the Korean population to adopt family planning. An attempt has been made to carefully analyze problem areas in the family planning program for which communication research is needed or would be relevant. An effort is made to show how the information obtained could be used to deal effectively through communication with the conditions presented by the problem. Communication research and evaluation techniques which would be most valuable to Korea are described. A research and evaluation design which spells out the components of a program of research intended to support the already published communication strategy of the Korean family planning over the next 3 years is included.
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  5. 5


    Menes RJ

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)

    This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
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  6. 6


    Loomis SA

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 92 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XVII)

    This article uses available statistics to analyze health conditions in Bangladesh and their impact on the country's socioeconomic development. Background information on the country is first given, after which population characteristics, health status, nutrition, national health policy and adminstration, health services and programs, population programs, environmental sanitation, health sector resources, financing of health care and donor assistance are examined. Bangladesh's 3% annual population increase is expected to increase already great population pressure and to have a negative impact on the health status of the population. Although reliable health statistics are lacking, infant mortality is estimated at 140 per 1000, 40% of all deaths occur in the 0-4 age group, and maternal mortality is high. Infectious diseases exacerbated by malnutrition are the main causes of death. 4 key factors are responsible for the general malnutrition: 1) rapidly growing population, 2) low per capita income, 3) high incidence of diarrheal diseases, and 4) dietary practices that restrict nutrient intake. Most of the population has access only to traditional health services, and medical education is hospital oriental and curative, with minimal emphasis on public health. The level of environmental sanitation is extremely low.
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  7. 7

    Family planning in Colombia: a profile of the development of policies and programmes.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, 1979 Oct. 47 p.

    The development of family planning programs in Colombia is outlined in this IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation)-sponsored report. Introductory demographic data are provided including information on the geography, economy, population dynamics, and available health services; this section is followed by a discussion of the government policy, which first became evident in 1968 with the inception of the national Maternal Child Health (MCH) program; the development of this program was in the face of active Catholic opposition and active leftwing proponents. Through 1979 the MCH program is still functioning with 100,000 new acceptors/year; in addition, the government only minimally inhibits the actions of nongovernment programs, such as PROFAMILIA, and allows for liberal regulations on such matters as prescription of contraceptives. The report then details the developments of individual family planning programs, some of which failed to survive the politically turbulent 1970s, e.g., ASCOFAME (Asociacion Colombiana de Facultades de Medicina), and others of which remain viable, e.g., PROFAMILIA; both of these programs are basically medical and have resulted in the following statistics of contraceptive protection from .1 in 1965 (per 1000 woman/years)-484.2 in 1975. Details of funding are provided, and expenditures and costs are presented tabularly. In addition to clinic programs, rural programs such as CBD (an adjunct of PROFAMILIA) were pioneered in Colombia, the structure of which has been emulated by all other field programs. Aspects of marketing (social marketing and mail order, e.g.,) are described and the personnel structure of PROFAMILIA is outlined. External funding of PROFAMILIA represents about 65% of its funding, and locally derived income provides the additional 35%.
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  8. 8

    World population policies.

    Singh JS

    In: Singh JS, ed. World Population policies. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1979. 228 p.

    The World Population Plan of Action synthesizes major points raised at the 1974 Bucharest Conference and numerous United Nations resolutions between 1966-74. Population and development are interrelated. Individuals and couples have the rights to decide freely the number and spacing of their children and should have the knowledge and means to do so. Population policies, programs, and goals are to be formulated and implemented at the national level within the context of specific economic, social, and cultural conditions of the respective countries. International strategies cannot work unless the underprivileged of the world achieve a significant improvement in their living conditions. It is recommended that countries with population problems impeding their development establish goals for reducing population growth by 1985. A life expectancy of 50 years is another suggested 1985 goal; also infant mortality rates of less than 120/1000 live births. Networks of small and medium sized cities should be strengthened for regional development and population distribution. Fair and equitable treatment is urged for migrant workers. Population measures, data collection, and population programs should be integrated into economic plans and programs. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to $2 million in 1960 and $350 million by 1977.
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  9. 9

    World population trends and policies: 1977 monitoring report. Vol. 1. Population trends.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, UN, 1979. 279 p. (Population studies No. 62)

    This report was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat on the basis of inputs by the Division, the International Labour Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the World Health Organization. Tables are presented for sex compositions of populations; demographic variables; percentage rates of change of unstandardized maternal mortality rates and ratios; population enumerated in the United States and born in Latin America; urban and rural population, annual rates of growth, and percentage of urban in total population, the world, the more developed and the less developed regions, 1950-75; crude death rates, by rural and urban residence, selected more developed countries; childhood mortality rates, age 1-4 years; and many others. The world population amounted to nearly 4 billion in 1975, a 60% increase over the 1950 population of 2.5 billion. The global increase is about 2%. The average death rate in developing areas has dropped from 25/1000 in 1950 to about 15/1000, a 40% decline. Estimates of birth rates in developing countries are 40-45 for 1950 and 35-40/1000 for 1975. Most of the shifts in vital trends in the less developed regions are still at an early stage or of limited geographical scope.
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  10. 10

    Thailand: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 p

    This report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
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  11. 11

    Population and family health in Thailand.

    Perkin GW

    Unpublished Ford Foundation paper, Nov. 1967. 20 p

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  12. 12

    Impact of population assistance to an African country: report to the Congress.

    United States. Comptroller General

    .. Washington, D.C., U.S. General Accounting Office, June 23, 1977 65 p. (ID-77-3)

    Although the population policy of Ghana stresses integration of population control with national development policy, little actual integration has occurred. Development efforts encouraging small families will be more actively supported by USAID in the future. Ghana's high birth rate (3%) impedes social and economic development. As the mortality rate falls, the growth rate rises. The results of population growth include increased food imports, crowded health facilities, and a smaller number of eligible students in school. More than 70% of the people live in rural areas; 60% employment is in agriculture. Experience in the Danfa project showed family planning was more acceptable to rural people when integrated with other medical services.
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  13. 13

    Mali: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, December 1978. (Report No. 8) 94 p

    This report is intended to diagnose the areas in which future population assistance is most needed by Mali in its efforts to solve its population problems as a step on the way to higher levels of social and economic devleopment. A summary of the recommendations of the Mission and the underlying reasons for those recommendations constitutes the 1st chapter of the report, followed in chapter 2 by a description of some outstanding aspects of the national setting relevant to planning for development; the objectives of the national plan; and an analysis of population issues and development planning in Mali. Subsequent chapters examine needs for assistance in respect of basic population data; population policy and research; and implementation of the national population policy (covering health and family planning and information, education and communications). External assistance to Mali for population is then reviewed briefly, and the report concludes with a statement of the Mission's views on the assistance needed in population, from UNFPA or from any other sources.
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  14. 14

    CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.


    Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 p

    This report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
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  15. 15

    U.S. development aid programs in West Africa. (Committee Print)

    United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on International Relations

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, March 22, 1976. 56 p

    A report of the staff survey team of the Committee on International Relations, whose review had the objectives of assessing the opportunities, challenges and obstacles to the introduction of effective family planning programs and population control programs into the West African environment, evaluates several aspects of U.S. development assistance programs in West Africa including: 1) population/family planning programs; 2) the Senegal River Basin project; and 3) reimbursable development programs in Nigeria. Population planning activities are reviewed for Nigeria; Ghana; Sierra Leone; Ivory Coast; Upper Volta; Senegal; and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It is concluded that despite the clear requirement for most nations in West Africa to curb high population growth rates if economic development is to be facilitated, little or nothing is being done in the countries visited. Information is provided for each country on family planning and population projects and organizations; sources of aid and funding; and health services available, concluding with a summary and comment. The Senegal River Basin project is reviewed, concluding that alternate strategies of fulfilling the U.S. pledge to the long-term development of the Sahel be thoroughly explored. Information provided on reimbursable development programs in Nigeria includes: 1) summary of findings; 2) program background; 3) Nigeria as an AID "graduate"; 4) Nigerian economic planning; 6) reimbursable development programs; and 7) staffing.
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  16. 16

    Population policy and its implementation.


    In: Caldwell, J.C., ed. Population growth and socioeconomic change in West Africa. New York, Published for the Population Council by Columbia University Press, 1975. p. 408-424

    From 1921 to 1960 the population of Ghana more than tripled. The growth rate was estimated at 2.7-3.0% per year. Population expansion was encouraged by President Kwame Nkrumah as part of his economic development program. By 1967, a new government and a new attitude changed Ghana's population policy to a more modern, antinatalist position. The Ghana Planned Parenthood Association began offering contraceptive and family planning education in March, 1967. In 1969, the National Liberation Council published a "Population Planning for National Progress and Prosperity" policy paper. The National Family Planning Program, funded by the International Planned Parenthood Association, established a systematic program in 1970 under the office of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. The unique feature of the Ghanaian program is that family planning has historically been recognized as an intrinsic part of economic development. Initially, family planning services will be established in large government hospitals. Private resources such as midwives, paramedical personnel, the Planned Parenthood Association, private hospitals are coordinated under the Ministry of Finance. A Director of Information and Educational Services oversee mass media, public communication, and grassroots service organizations. Immigration laws have not been enforced until 1969 when an Aliens Compliance was issued and enforced the following year. The planned immigration policy will be severely restrictive to ameliorate problems of unemployment and population growth.
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  17. 17

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

    Furnia AH

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1976. (Syncrisis, The Dynamics of Health No. 18) 149 p

    There is no sector of Pakistani life which more graphically reflects the great sacrifice it took to make Pakistan a viable state than the health sector. Malaria, tuberculosis, and cholera continue to constitute threats to health. Gastrointestinal, infectious, and other parasitic diseases continue to contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. These diseases are exacerbated by extremely primitive water supplies and waste disposal, bad housing, nutritional problems, and an increasingly heavy population growth. Public health resources to cope with these conditions have not previously been available. Pakistan's poor helth environment appears to result from widespread infectious and communicable diseases, poverty, and sociocultural attitudes which inhibit improving the environment, and ineffective policies administered by limited numbers of inadequately trained health workers, affecting both the urban poor and the rural population. In the latest 5-year plan, the 5th, 1975-1980, there is increasing attention to health. Regarding family planning, it has been suggested that the government has finally begun to recognize that urgent and dramatic steps are necessary to reduce Pakistan's population growth rate. The government has adopted a policy of using conventional contraceptives as the most acceptable method of contraception in Pakistan. A program of distributing the oral contraceptive without medical or paramedical constraints had been instituted, and the government has undertaken to subsidize the distribution of th oral contraceptive and the condom through some 50,000 outlets at 2.5 cents per monthly supply.
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  18. 18

    The population situation in the region and the family planning and population programme.

    Sodhy LS

    In: International Federation of Medical Student Associations (IFMSA). Standing Committee on Population Activities (SCOPA). Proceedings of the Asian Regional Workshop on Population, Singapore, June 15-22, 1975. Singapore, Asian Regional Workshop on Population, (1975). p. 5-13

    The fertility rate of a country is closely interrelated with social and economic goals; increases in population can nullify any improvements made in either sector. The relationship between the fertility rate and the family unit is also profound. The overall quality of family life deteriorates if numbers exceed resources. The hazards of high fertility to maternal and child health are also great. Asians have long been aware of the dangers of overpopulation and in the past few decades have used family planning as a prime means of fertility control. Efforts to arrive at solutions to the population problem have been made on an inter national and a national level. At the national level, government and vo luntary agencies encourage the acceptance and practice of family planning. Government programs are based on demographic objectives within development planning and aim to reduce fertility to achieve development. For voluntary organizations fertility reduction is a by-product of achievement of family welfare and well-being through planning. Voluntary organizations, generally family planning associations, have been able to remove the stigma attached to birth control in many instances because they are generally community based and oriented and have stimulated local involvement. National family planning associations are coordinated and supported at the international level by IPPF. 3 major factors have been found to encourage fertility reductions; economic progress, valuing children as individuals and not as economic assets, and elevating the status of women. Education of adults and children toward an awareness of population issues and responsible parenthood is a necessary part of any family planning program. The scope of such programs is extremely broad and may encompass legal as well as voluntary measures to reduce fertility; in any case, the participation of medical professionals is vital to the success of any program. In the area, Singapore, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan have been successful in lowering fertility. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973, a significant rise but not a sufficient one. It is increasingly apparent that it requires about 10 years to get the annual growth rate of a country down 2 percent and another 10 to get it down to 1.5 percent, and further, that such reductions go hand in hand with economic development.
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  19. 19

    A Framework for Evaluating Long-Term Strategies for the Development of the Sahel-Sudan Region. Annex 2. Health, Nutrition, and Population. A final report, September 1, 1973 through December 31, 1974

    Stanbury JB; Childs JA

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Policy Alternatives, December 31, 1974. Contract AID/afr-C-1040. 315 p

    This report on the health-care system of the Sahel-Sudan characterizes it as fragmented and severely understaffed. There is inequitable distribution of health resources, with a strong tendency toward urbanization. The largest, inappropriately so, fraction of available resources goes to curative medicine; investment in preventive medicine is recommended as cost effective. Improvements in health require improvements in nutrition, water supply, waste disposal, public health programs, hygiene, education, and transportation; in addition, health-care delivery systems must be improved. A vaccination program for measles will reduce child mortality but will also expand the dependency ration and further strain available resources geared to younger aged persons. The principle recommendations for improving health care are: 1) integration of all components of the system; 2) improvements in monitoring disease; 3) reorientation of the system toward preventive medicine; 4) emphasis on mother-child care; 5) use of all communications media in health education; and 6) strengthening of health education to amplify health-care delivery. The low average population density in this region means that demographic issues have not been of overriding concern. The present stagnation of economic development, high rate of unemployment, prevalence of undernutrition, and dependence on foreign aid suggest that under current circumstances population is in excess of the optimal land-population ratio. The present average population growth rate of 2.2%/year, together with the fact that nearly half of the total population is below 15 years of age, means that the population will double in 32 years or less unless the growth rate falls. Some pronatalist laws have been changed.
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  20. 20

    Syncrisis: the dynamics of health. An analytic series on the interactions of health and socioeconomic development. V. El Salvador.

    Woolley PO Jr; Perry CA; Larson D

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, October 1972. (Syncrisis: The Dynamics of Health, No. 5) 53 p

    This brief overview focuses on the basic health situation in El Salvador. An attempt is made to point to the interactions between health and other sectors in the hope that this will influence others to think in the direction of multisector influences. The 3 main health problems in El Salvador relate to nutrition, health services, and sanitation. There is a tremendous burden placed on a society by a weak and ill population, and this is especially true in El Salvador where over 1/2 the children are malnourished and simple childhood diseases are often fatal. However, there seem to be no government or other programs to alleviate this problem, and nutrition is only dealt with in relation to adult literacy programs. Improvement of the nutritional status of the population would benefit the health and well being of the population. Regarding the availability of health services, some form of health facility is available to 85.6% of the population, but over 1/2 these facilities are not permanently staffed. There are, however, more sophisticated facilities which are fairly evenly distributred throughout the country. Deaths which are not certified by a physician are at a high of 65%, indicating that medical care was not available at or near the time of death for the majority of those dying. The country has a good transportation system; there are not any obvious cultural barriers to seeking modern medical care, and yet the people of El Salvador, young and old alike die from a lack of care. It is encouraging that in the area of sanitation there is at least much activity. Poor sanitation is 1 of the basic underlying causes for a large percentage of the diseases, and until this problem is resolved, the country will continue to experience preventable diseases.
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  21. 21

    Development and population policy in Ceylon.

    Kodikara SU

    In: Fukutake, T. and Morioka, K., eds. Sociology and social development in Asia. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1974. p. 39-60

    The history of the development of a population policy in Ceylon is given. Ceylon has a high rate of growth due to a declining death rate and a high steady birthrate. A continuing economic crisis has been aggravated by the high birthrate, and the unemployment rate is over 12%. Increased food production has been inadequate, and welfare policies have limited funds available for productive investment. The Family Planning Association (FPA) in Ceylon was founded in January 1953 and has received financial support from several sources, most importantly from the Swedish International Development Authority. In the 3 plans during 1955-1965 emphasis has been laid on the relation between economic development and population growth. The Sirimavo Bandaranaike Government's Short-Term Implementation Programme of 1962 stated the urgency of the economic problem and its connection with the rate of population growth. From 1965 the Government of Ceylon made family planning an official responsibility. Family planning work was taken over by the Dept. of Health. The FPA has devoted itself to the dissemination of propaganda on family planning. Official policy on family planning has tended to become ambivalent because of a charge that family planning could turn the ethnic balance against the Sinhalese. In April 1971 there was an insurrection that threatened the existence of the government, and realizing it was due to unemployment, living costs, and fragmentation of land, the Government incorporated a note that facilities for family planning among all groups are essential.
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  22. 22

    The family planning movement and population control.

    Henderson J

    How many people? A Symposium. Foreign Policy Association, 1973. (Headline Series No. 218) p. 7-15. December 1973

    The progress of the family planning and population control movements are traced with particular regard to the significant role played by early volunteer organizations like the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which was formed in 1952 by the National Family Planning Associations of India, the U.S., Britain, Hong Kong Germany, Holland, Sweden and Singapore. Global recognition of the population problem has been fostered in part by the universal trend toward urbanization, the sharp reduction in maternal and child deaths, the gradual improvement in the status of women, and other social changes which created a demand for better living conditions. The current trend toward assessing national development prospects in terms of social objectives represents a merger between demographic policy and family planning programs. This union between the public and private sector is largely due to the efforts of voluntary family planning groups who have sought to demonstrate that provision of birth control services and education would result in individual efforts to control fertility. Pioneers like the IPPF lobbied and forced action on the evidence that family size and population growth are related integrally to the social and economic progress which the UN and national governments were trying to create. In the mid-60s, the UN officially recognized the efforts of volunteer agencies and within 2 years, the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, UNESCO, UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture Organization acknowledged the contribution of family planning to their own efforts to improve living standards. By 1965, family planning had been introduced in 92 countries and governments committed to population control numbered 10. The IPPF has received increased funding from the U.S., Britain and Sweden to supplement their aid to emerging voluntary organizations which are still dependent on private funding. Governments rely on the private sector during their early experiments with national services as well as on the efforts of the voluntary movement to get services fully utilized. Public and private sector activities tent to become mutually supportive. No voluntary association has been able to develop a nationwide clinic service alone. Government involvement provides essential public health facilities. Family planning organizations, in continuing roles as catalyst and pressure group, can be vital to emerging national programs, and can assist governments with problems of training, administration, distribution and coordination which are essential to the efficient delivery of services.
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  23. 23

    Human fertility and national development: a challenge to science and technology.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1971. 140 p

    This report was prepared as a working document for the use of the United Nations Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development in devising its recommendations to the UN Economic and Social Council on the application of science and technology to population problems. The study is primarily organized around the analysis of the levels and trends of high fertility rates and their impact (along with other demographic factors) upon the development process and the life and well-being of individual, families, and the community. Consequently, the religious, cultural and social factors influencing fertility patterns and reproductive behavior in the developing countries are analyzed in detail. 2 chapters are devoted to the organizational, logistical, and motivational aspects of establishing family planning programs as part of development planning. A proposed 5-year program for expanded UN activities in the population field, together with a description of the possible development of population programs under UN aegis, are also described.
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  24. 24

    Iran (Profile).

    Friesen JK; Moore RV

    Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.

    The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
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  25. 25

    Major health problems.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: World Health Organization (WHO). Third report on the world health situation, 1961-1964. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, April 1967. 28-35. (Official Records of the World Health Organization No. 155)

    The specific replies of 86 governments to the questionnaire for the Third Report are analyzed. The questionnaire asked for 3 things; 1) a description of the major public health problems still to be solved in order of magnitude; 2) how that assessment had been made; and 3) assignment of, where possible, priorities to the solving of the problems. The 46 problems cited fell into the following 10 major groups, listed in order of importance; environmental deficiencies, malaria, tuberculosis, malnutrition, helminthiases (including bilharziasis), communicable diseases (exclusive of malaria, tuberculosis and venereal diseases), chronic degenerative diseases and accidents, administrative and organizational deficiencies (including personnel deficiencies), venereal diseases, and mental health. Though the health record for each country was different, common patterns tended to emerge on a regional basis. The African region profile was drawn from the experience of 28 countries, and the general picture was of a region where effort needed to be concentrated on the control of communicable diseases, requiring large expenditures in basic sanitation, training of personnel and administrative and organizational improvements. In Canada and the U.S. the major problems were cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and accidents, and the organization and financing of health care services. The Central and South American and the Caribbean profile was drawn from the replies of 36 countries. Their problems in order of importance were: 1) malnutrition, 2) environmental deficiencies and diarrheal and venereal diseases, and 3) malaria. 7 countries in the Southeast Asia region provided information. Major problems there were environmental deficiencies, diarrheal diseases and dysentary, communicable diseases, and to a lesser extent population pressure. In the European region, priority was given to problems of administration and organization, followed fairly closely by cancer, cardiovascular disease, venereal diseases, tuberculosis, respiratory virus diseases, and infectious hepatitis. In the Eastern Mediterranean malaria and tuberculosis were the outstanding diseases and half the respondents had important administrative and organizational problems. In the Western Pacific, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand have problems comparable to those of the developed countries of Europe and North America. In the other countries in the region the emphasis was on communicable diseases with tuberculosis in the lead. Other problems mentioned that did not fit under 1 of the 10 headings were human rabies, alcoholism, dental health, and problems associated with urbanization and industrialization. Problems of population pressure and manpower deficiencies in the health field are also discussed on a regional basis.
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