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  1. 1
    290742
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons project after 10 years: persistent barriers and achievements.

    Gatherer A; Moller L; Hayton P

    American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Oct; 95(10):1696-1700.

    The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services. However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network’s fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved. (author's)
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  2. 2
    181179
    Peer Reviewed

    Health sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis of country experiences.

    Lambo E; Sambo LG

    East African Medical Journal. 2003 Jun; 80(6 Suppl):S1-S20.

    Health sector reform is 'a sustained process of fundamental changes in national health policy, institutional arrangements, etc. guided by government and designed to improve the functioning and performance of the health sector and, ultimately, the health status of the population'. All the forty six countries in the African Region of the World Health Organisation have embarked on one form of health sector reform or the other. The contexts and contents of their health reform programmes have varied from one country to another. Health reforms in the region have been influenced largely by the poor performance of the health systems, particularly with regard to the quality of health services. Most countries have taken due congnizance of the deficiencies on their health systems in the design of their health reform programmes and they have made some progress in the implementation of such programmes. Indeed, some countries have adopted sector-wide approaches (SWAps) in developing and implementing their health reform programmes. Since countries are at various stages of implementing their health reform programmes, there is a lot of potential for countries to learn from one another. This paper is a synthesis of the experiences of the countries of the Region in the development and implementation of their health sector reform programmes, it also highlights the future perspectives in this important area. (author's)
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  3. 3
    074776

    Local production of oral rehydration salts.

    Tomaro J

    [Unpublished] 1990 May. [2], 12 p. (PRITECH Field Implementation Aid)

    Control of Diarrheal Disease (CDD) programs need to move more and more toward self-sufficiency. Thus they want a reliable supply of low cost, locally produced oral rehydration salts (ORS). 2 obstacles hinder the process: low demand and an inadequately developed pharmaceutical industry. It takes about US$200,000 to begin ORS production. In 1987, pharmaceutical plants in developing countries made 75% of all ORS produced. In Indonesia, for example, 12 private and parastatal manufacturers can produce ORS, but low demand is forcing some to decrease production. In Bangladesh, however, only 1 parastatal and 1 private company produces all ORS used in the country, but they cannot keep up with demand. Other developing countries producing their own ORS include Costa Rica, Tunisia, Zambia, Mali, Egypt, and Ghana. Any group that considers local ORS production must first examine various factors including an assessment of potential demand, the extent that diarrhea is treated with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and the government's position on ORS production and distribution. The group should contact the local UNICEF office to gain its support and guidance. It should also work with WHO and Ministry of Health officials and speak with the chief pharmacist or head of the pharmacy board. This group also needs to consider economic factors such as pricing and costs of importing raw materials. It should also see to a detailed cost analysis and market research. The group also needs to determine production capability in the country which includes the ability of companies to adhere to the international Good Manufacturing Practices code. In the beginning of project development, the group must consider ORS promotion with ORS production, e.g., it should scrutinize the potential producer's record for marketing and organize field research. The group can obtain technical assistance from UNICEF, UNIDO, and USAID funded projects such as PRITECH, PATH, HEALTHCOM, and SOMARC.
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  4. 4
    078080

    Resolution 44/233: Prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [22 December 1989].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1990 Mar 15. 4 p. (A/RES/44/233)

    The UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the prevention and control of AIDS during its 44th session in March 1990. It recognized WHO as directing and coordinating AIDS education, prevention, control, and research. It respects the human rights and dignity of people with HIV, their families, and people with whom they live. It hold that the fight against AIDS should be compatible with and not shift attention or resources from other public health priorities and development goals. It recognizes the social and economic effects of AIDS. It identifies that women and children are often at higher risk of HIV infection and may experience hardship as an indirect result of AIDS on their families and communities. It stresses the need for a supportive socioeconomic atmosphere to assure effective execution of national AIDS prevention programs and merciful care of affected persons. It calls for all sectors of society to reinforce local, national, and international efforts for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. It recognized the progress scientific research has made and emphasizes the need to offer affordable technologies and medicines as soon as possible. It appeals to the Secretary-General to work with the Director-General of WHO and other relevant organizations to deal with the likely grave consequences of the AIDS pandemic for socioeconomic development in some developing countries. It requests member nations to expand and promote national efforts to combat AIDS. It urges member nations, WHO, and other relevant organization to promote greater understanding of HIV transmission to dispel myths and to raise the public's awareness about people with HIV. It asks international, national, and research institutions to coordinate efforts to supply information to and to support policy of national AIDS committees and the global AIDS strategy. Thus the AIDS committees and WHO can appropriately develop AIDS policy and programs.
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