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  1. 1

    Eradication of indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in the Americas. Plan of action, July 1985.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]. Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI]

    [Washington, D.C.], PAHO, 1985 Jul. 26 p. (EPI-85-102; CD31/7 Annex II)

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) appointed a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) which met in July 1985 to plan eradication of wild poliovirus in the Americas by 1990 by immunization and surveillance. The strategies to be adopted are mobilization of national resources; vaccine coverage of 80% or more of the target population; surveillance to detect all cases; laboratory diagnosis; information dissemination; identification and funding of research needs; development of a certification protocol; and evaluation of ongoing program activities. The expanded immunization program (EPI) will be organized at the country level by setting up National Work Plans, with inventories of resources and identification of participating agencies and donors, under the guidance of national EPI offices. The TAG will be composed of a core of 5 experts on immunization, with additional consultants as needed, meeting quarterly, semi-annually or annually to review progress and publish recommendations. Regional EPI offices will coordinate eradication activities between the Ministries of Health, the 10-11 epidemiologists/technical advisors in each country and all agencies affiliated with the PAHO. Support personnel will be available at the sub-regional and regional level, including support virologists to assist the laboratory network. Appendices are attached showing estimated costs for regional and regional personnel, vaccines, laboratories, and program activities, predicting that the effort will pay for itself 2.3 times over by 2000.
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  2. 2

    Reconstruction of health in Cambodia. The work of WHO: past, present and future.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Tokyo, Japan, WHO, 1994 Mar. 13 p.

    During Cambodia's transition to a parliamentary democracy, the World Health Organization (WHO) assisted various administrative authorities as they determined immediate health policies and strategies and established mechanisms for national and international coordination of health activities. WHO identified national requirements that formed the foundation for a national health development process and of de facto policies and strategies. The generation of war and suffering had the most impact on women and children (e.g., maternal mortality 900/100,000 live births and child mortality >200/1000). Significant conditions in Cambodia include malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, tuberculosis, diarrhea, HIV/AIDS, and loss of limbs and other physical injuries. The Ministry of Health (MOH) is responsible for health care for almost the entire population. The priority health development strategy is improving district health systems in support of community health services. The currently managed vertical programs will eventually be integrated and managed as one comprehensive health service system from the provincial level. The human resource development strategy includes workforce planning and management, continuing education, and formal training. Cambodia's system of procurement and distribution of essential drugs, supplies, and equipment of public sector health facilities needs to be improved. WHO is supporting Cambodia's expanded program on immunization. MOH considers reduction of maternal and young child mortality a top priority and is promoting birth spacing. Mental health problems have not been traditionally addressed in Cambodia. The government plans on establishing a central program of planning and management to support and develop mental health services. Other areas WHO and MOH are addressing include nutrition, health and environment, and health sector resources (e.g., health personnel, capital investment).
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  3. 3

    Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care: issues and challenges.

    Schware R

    In: Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care, edited by Ronald G. Wilson, Barbara E. Echols, John H. Bryant, and Alexandre Abrantes. Geneva, Switzerland, Aga Khan Foundation, 1988. 17-20.

    A wide array of issues must be addressed if the development and use of management information system (MIS) and microcomputers are to improve management of primary health care (PHC) programs and increase the equity and cost-effectiveness of PHC. These issues include: specification of the purpose and objectives of MIS at community and district levels; distinquishing types of information required; the understanding of organizational issues that must be resolved as a result of introducing MIS; the practical definition of the most useful indicators of program effectiveness and efficiency; the specification and monitoring of data collection, compilation, and analysis requirements and procedures; procedures for generating and using processed MIS data and management information; the PHC program's capacity to absorb technological innovations; and personnel requirements. The need for improved data systems must be recognized. Data quality and systematic flow of information must be ensured from the field level upwards, and minimum information requirements need to be defined. The success of any MIS is heavily dependent on feedback of the data collected. Unless staff at all levels of a PHC program understand the importance of the data they are collecting, the value and use of the information system will be negligible. Examples of the Egyptian government's National Health Information System and the role of the World Bank are used to show how MIS and microcomputer can be introduced and used in PHC.
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