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Monitoring and evaluating actions implemented to confront AIDS in Brazil: civil society's participation.
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:88-93.The United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS recommends that governments conduct periodic analysis of actions undertaken in confronting the HIV/ AIDS epidemic that involve civil society's participation. Specific instruments and mechanisms should be created towards this end. This paper examines some of the responses of the Brazilian government to this recommendation. Analysis contemplates the Declaration's proposals as to civil society's participation in monitoring and evaluating such actions and their adequacy with respect to Brazilian reality. The limitations and potentials of MONITORAIDS, the matrix of indicators created by Brazil's Programa Nacional de DST/AIDS [National Program for STD/AIDS] to monitor the epidemic are discussed. Results indicate that MONITORAIDS's complexity hampers its use by the conjunction of actors involved in the struggle against AIDS. The establishment of mechanisms that facilitate the appropriation of this system by all those committed to confronting the epidemic in Brazil is suggested. (author's)
American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Jan; 95(1):8.The term global as applied to human development emerged in the 1960s at the time of the green revolution, when the World Bank advocated the need to “think globally, act locally.” The terms global, international, and intergovernmental have different roots and translate differently in policy; institutional functions; and level of analysis, action, and accountability. They are not mutually exclusive. While the term international has framed much of the work in health across countries over the past decades, the term global has become more politically viable in that it elevates the vision of health to the whole planet, moving beyond geopolitical boundaries and including not only governments but nongovernmental stakeholders and actors. The World Health Organization (WHO), created shortly after World War II as a specialized, intergovernmental agency, is intended to lead and coordinate the health actions of governments worldwide. The work of WHO is facilitated when consensus is reached among countries on global priorities, as was the case for malaria and smallpox eradication in the 1960s, primary health care and immunization in the 1970s, and the Global Program on HIV/AIDS in the 1980s. (excerpt)
LINKS. HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT. 1991 Fall; 8(3):11-2.The authors respond to Tony Dajer's critique of their study concerning the trend in Nicaraguan infant mortality and its possible explanations. It is pointed out that the sharp decline in Nicaragua's infant mortality in the mid-1970s is an intriguing phenomenon, since it began to occur at a time of economic slump, civil disturbance, and under a government that gave low priority to the social sector. It is contended that a number of factors (among them the Managua earthquake) prompted the government to shift its allocation of resources from hospital-based health care in the capital city to ambulatory health care throughout the country. After the revolution, the Sandinista government continued this process. Dajer's characterization of USAID-funded clinics as "notoriously ineffective" is rejected; arguing that although operating under overt political guidelines, these projects are well-advised by experts. Dajer's question as to the importance of health care within the Sandinista government is considered. It is maintained that the revolution was not fought in order to reduce infant mortality, and that health was not the primary concern of the Government of National Reconstruction. It was the international solidarity movement, not the Sandinista government, which focused so intently on infant mortality, hoping to find good news to report. The issue of health care had the added advantage of being politically noncontroversial. It is also maintained that since the mid-70s, the country's health policy has remained stable, despite the radical changes in government because the international arena helps determine national health policy.
London, England, Macmillan, 1988. x, 165 p.Evaluations of progress made toward greater primary health care (PHC) among nations since the Alma Ata Conference of 1978 indicate that problems exist in managing PHC and reorienting existing services to PHC. The overwhelming majority of plans set forth through country policy have not been set into motion. Contributors from a host of disciplines and interests were called upon to explore manners in which countries may reorient their health services to the ideal of PHC and Health for All by the Year 2000. Prescription for change is avoided, yet a number of successful country examples are described in the text. Principles with potential application for other country setting are then explored. PHC and change is first explored, followed by a discussion of the theory and practice of organizational change. Subsequent chapters address PHC as it relates to ministries of health, district management, hospitals, medical education, nursing, intersectoral collaboration, and NGOs and international organizations. Challenges for the future close the text. Health professionals must help enable individuals, families, and communities to take the major responsibility for their health; a concept central to PHC. Continual dialogue, popular consultation, and organizational adaptation and change are required along with a bottom-up approach for setting targets and identifying needs. The authors understand that intersectoral collaboration along with administrative flexibility and adaptation are needed if goals are to be met. Finally, the health sector should get its house in order before working out the details of PHC policy.
In: Singh JS, ed. World Population policies. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1979. 228 p.The World Population Plan of Action synthesizes major points raised at the 1974 Bucharest Conference and numerous United Nations resolutions between 1966-74. Population and development are interrelated. Individuals and couples have the rights to decide freely the number and spacing of their children and should have the knowledge and means to do so. Population policies, programs, and goals are to be formulated and implemented at the national level within the context of specific economic, social, and cultural conditions of the respective countries. International strategies cannot work unless the underprivileged of the world achieve a significant improvement in their living conditions. It is recommended that countries with population problems impeding their development establish goals for reducing population growth by 1985. A life expectancy of 50 years is another suggested 1985 goal; also infant mortality rates of less than 120/1000 live births. Networks of small and medium sized cities should be strengthened for regional development and population distribution. Fair and equitable treatment is urged for migrant workers. Population measures, data collection, and population programs should be integrated into economic plans and programs. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to $2 million in 1960 and $350 million by 1977.