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Geneva, World Health Organization, 1971. (Technical Report Series No. 483). 47 p.A WHO Study Group on Health Education in Health Aspects of Family Planning met in Geneva from December 15-21, 1970. A report of the group is presented. It is asserted that family planning contributes materially to 1 of the main aims of health services, by helping to ensure that every child, wherever possible, lives and grows up in a family unit with love and security in healthy surroundings, receives adequate nourishment, health supervision, and efficient medical attention, and is taught the elements of healthy living. The Study Group gave primary consideration to an analysis of the educational components fundamental to achieving the objectives of family planning services within the context of health services: the programming process, implementation, evaluation, methodology, coordination, and needs for studies and research. The Group noted that in many countries the integration of family planning care into health services not only has important educational implications but also brings many administrative and technical advantages. The contents of the report include sections on 1) family planning and its dependence on many services, 2) dependence of family planning on people, 3) some important requirements and difficulties, 4) objectives of education in health aspects of family planning, 5) a systematic approach to education in the health aspects of family planning, 6) importance of an organized health education service, 7) coordination of effort, 8) studies and research, and 9) recommendations.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 36 p. (Report)The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
M. A. thesis, Univ. of Chicago, Division of the Social Sciences, Dec. 1973. 90 p.In the summer of 1971 the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK), with the concurrence of the Korean government, launched a new phase in the Korean family planning program--"Stop at Two" movement. With this step the 10 year old family program became the 1st in the world to openly advocate and propogate through communications the 2-child family norm. Since then the movement has been vigorously pressed through all communications channels in spite of traditional norms and the need for major outside funding. The decision to actively bring the "Stop at Two" idea to the public was based largely on the implications for the future of the success of the 1st 10 years of the national family planning program. The Korean government has set an optimistic population growth rate target for the next 5 years--1.5 to be achieved by 1976. To reach these goals it is estimated that 45% of the eligible population will have to be regularly using some form of contraception. At 1 time or another the PPFK, supporting the national program, has used every conceivable method of communication to inform, motivate, and persuade the Korean population to adopt family planning. An attempt has been made to carefully analyze problem areas in the family planning program for which communication research is needed or would be relevant. An effort is made to show how the information obtained could be used to deal effectively through communication with the conditions presented by the problem. Communication research and evaluation techniques which would be most valuable to Korea are described. A research and evaluation design which spells out the components of a program of research intended to support the already published communication strategy of the Korean family planning over the next 3 years is included.
In: International Labor Office. Family planning in industry in the Asian region. Pt. 3. Field experiences. Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia, 1979 Jun. 1-9.The per capita income in Bangladesh is $72 per year; the infant mortality rate is 140/1000. The rate of literacy is 24%. Family planning and population policy is one of the government's first priorities. The Population Planning Unit in the Directorate of Labour implements and coordinates all population activities in the labor sector. 3 pilot projects are being conducted with the technical and financial aid of ILO/UNFPA and IDA/IBRD: 1) Family Planning Motivation and Services in Industry and Plantation; 2) Population Education and Training for Labour Welfare Officers, Trade Union Officials, and Personnel; and, 3) Pilot Project for Population Planning in the Organized Sector. The government allows 3 days leave with full pay for those workers orspouses who undergo sterilization. Some industrial managements give additional benefits: housing, bonuses, medical care, education, and employjent opportunities to spouses. The long range objectives of the projects are to support the national program; facilitate the use of existing medical services; and to promote the concept of providing family planning services as part of other labor welfare services. The immediate objectives are to create an awareness of the population problem and family planning methods among industrial and plantation workers and encourage small family norms; and, to use existing services for family planning.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH EDUCATION. 1974; 17(4):235-47.Extracts from the backgound paper for the Consultation Meeting of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization are presented. The meeting's purpose was to obtain specific recommendations that might be used by WHO, PAHO, and the member countries in developing educational personnel for programs dealing with family health and health aspects of reproduction. After reviewing the problems in Latin America and the Caribbean, the various kinds of constraints which have implications for health problems are examined, and key issues relating to family health are analyzed. Many health experts maintain that the family planning approach is the most effective and least expensive means of reducing maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, yet in most countries it is perceived primarily as a means of containing or reducing population growth. In most family planning programs the number of new acceptors appears to be the criterion for measuring success; little if any emphasis is given to continuation of use, teaching the health reasons for regulating reproduction, or increasing acceptance among women with high health risks. In some programs, eligibility requirements are such that many women of high health risk cannot be served. Thus far, research and studies to promote the development of the educational component of family planning programs or to orient selection of educational methodology have had minimal support. In most countries the full potential of the resources invested to achieve improvements in maternal and child health is not being realized. This is partly because of the fact that there is no explicit national policy giving direction to the development of an integrated approach. Few countries have policies and plans for health manpower development and utilization that are based on a careful analysis of priority health needs.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
Washington, D.C., IOM, April 1978. (Report NO. IOM-78-03) 81 pFindings and recommendations are presented of a study conducted by the U.S. Institute of Medicine's Committee on International Health in response to a 1977 congressional request to determine opportunities, if any, for broadened federal program activities in areas of international health. The study committee urged that the U.S.: 1) assist less developed countries to strengthen their own capacity to deal with their health problems; 2) work collaboratively with host country organization; 3) make realistic and sustained commitments to international health proejcts; and 4) coordinate activities with international agencies such as the World Health Organization. An examination of statutory policy and organizational framework now used by the U.S. government in international health programs led the committee to identify 4 major problems that must be resolved: 1) inadequate access by the government to major U. S. sources of health science expertise; 2) skimpy support of research and development on major health problems in developing countries; 3) scattered agency responsibility for decisions on international health activities; and 4) inadequate organizational arrangements for policy development. The committee makes 3 general recommendations for reassignment of responsibilities to resolve the problems.
CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.
Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 pThis report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
In: Caldwell, J.C., ed. Population growth and socioeconomic change in West Africa. New York, Published for the Population Council by Columbia University Press, 1975. p. 408-424From 1921 to 1960 the population of Ghana more than tripled. The growth rate was estimated at 2.7-3.0% per year. Population expansion was encouraged by President Kwame Nkrumah as part of his economic development program. By 1967, a new government and a new attitude changed Ghana's population policy to a more modern, antinatalist position. The Ghana Planned Parenthood Association began offering contraceptive and family planning education in March, 1967. In 1969, the National Liberation Council published a "Population Planning for National Progress and Prosperity" policy paper. The National Family Planning Program, funded by the International Planned Parenthood Association, established a systematic program in 1970 under the office of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. The unique feature of the Ghanaian program is that family planning has historically been recognized as an intrinsic part of economic development. Initially, family planning services will be established in large government hospitals. Private resources such as midwives, paramedical personnel, the Planned Parenthood Association, private hospitals are coordinated under the Ministry of Finance. A Director of Information and Educational Services oversee mass media, public communication, and grassroots service organizations. Immigration laws have not been enforced until 1969 when an Aliens Compliance was issued and enforced the following year. The planned immigration policy will be severely restrictive to ameliorate problems of unemployment and population growth.
In: International Federation of Medical Student Associations (IFMSA). Standing Committee on Population Activities (SCOPA). Proceedings of the Asian Regional Workshop on Population, Singapore, June 15-22, 1975. Singapore, Asian Regional Workshop on Population, (1975). p. 5-13The fertility rate of a country is closely interrelated with social and economic goals; increases in population can nullify any improvements made in either sector. The relationship between the fertility rate and the family unit is also profound. The overall quality of family life deteriorates if numbers exceed resources. The hazards of high fertility to maternal and child health are also great. Asians have long been aware of the dangers of overpopulation and in the past few decades have used family planning as a prime means of fertility control. Efforts to arrive at solutions to the population problem have been made on an inter national and a national level. At the national level, government and vo luntary agencies encourage the acceptance and practice of family planning. Government programs are based on demographic objectives within development planning and aim to reduce fertility to achieve development. For voluntary organizations fertility reduction is a by-product of achievement of family welfare and well-being through planning. Voluntary organizations, generally family planning associations, have been able to remove the stigma attached to birth control in many instances because they are generally community based and oriented and have stimulated local involvement. National family planning associations are coordinated and supported at the international level by IPPF. 3 major factors have been found to encourage fertility reductions; economic progress, valuing children as individuals and not as economic assets, and elevating the status of women. Education of adults and children toward an awareness of population issues and responsible parenthood is a necessary part of any family planning program. The scope of such programs is extremely broad and may encompass legal as well as voluntary measures to reduce fertility; in any case, the participation of medical professionals is vital to the success of any program. In the area, Singapore, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan have been successful in lowering fertility. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973, a significant rise but not a sufficient one. It is increasingly apparent that it requires about 10 years to get the annual growth rate of a country down 2 percent and another 10 to get it down to 1.5 percent, and further, that such reductions go hand in hand with economic development.
Geneva, WHO, 1971. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 476) 65 p.This report on family planning programs in health services is divided into 5 broad categories: 1) introduction; 2) general considerations (including a review of programs, legislation and goals); 3) planning; 4) implementation; and 5) evaluation. Many developing countries which emphasize family planning have poor health care delivery systems. The situation may be complicated by political factors such as regional autonomy. If demographic goals create a sense of urgency within the national government, considerable financial resources may be used solely for family planning. A single purpose campaign is not likely to succeed without a sound health infrastructure. Family planning workers are often more acceptable to the local community when they work under the auspices of a general health team. Some family planning can be integrated into whatever health services are available. Maternal child health services are particularly desireable and effective. All health personnel should be trained in the principles of family planning; it should be standard curricula. The scope and training of indigenous workers in family planning should be defined. Practical indicators of service inputs should be used to evaluate programs. Field studies, de monstrations, and pilot projects are useful and desireable both as a preliminary measure and a training method.
In: World Health Organization (WHO). The second ten years of the World Health Organization. 1958-1967. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1968. 37-77.The direction of activities relating to the organization of health services of WHO during the period of 1958-1967, has been influenced by the emergence of many newly independent countries, an informed and demanding public, the cost of health care and the concept of balanced economic and social development. The Organization has been called upon to assist the national authorities in the formulation of national programs. Reorganization of health services and changes of emphasis in their development are closely associated with the need to evaluate both the technical and administrative aspects of the programs, manpower and financial resources. The work of WHO in the last 10 years is presented and includes; planning, administration of public health, medical care, health laboratory services, occupational health, health education, maternal and child health, nursing and health statistics.
How many people? A Symposium. Foreign Policy Association, 1973. (Headline Series No. 218) p. 7-15. December 1973The progress of the family planning and population control movements are traced with particular regard to the significant role played by early volunteer organizations like the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which was formed in 1952 by the National Family Planning Associations of India, the U.S., Britain, Hong Kong Germany, Holland, Sweden and Singapore. Global recognition of the population problem has been fostered in part by the universal trend toward urbanization, the sharp reduction in maternal and child deaths, the gradual improvement in the status of women, and other social changes which created a demand for better living conditions. The current trend toward assessing national development prospects in terms of social objectives represents a merger between demographic policy and family planning programs. This union between the public and private sector is largely due to the efforts of voluntary family planning groups who have sought to demonstrate that provision of birth control services and education would result in individual efforts to control fertility. Pioneers like the IPPF lobbied and forced action on the evidence that family size and population growth are related integrally to the social and economic progress which the UN and national governments were trying to create. In the mid-60s, the UN officially recognized the efforts of volunteer agencies and within 2 years, the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, UNESCO, UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture Organization acknowledged the contribution of family planning to their own efforts to improve living standards. By 1965, family planning had been introduced in 92 countries and governments committed to population control numbered 10. The IPPF has received increased funding from the U.S., Britain and Sweden to supplement their aid to emerging voluntary organizations which are still dependent on private funding. Governments rely on the private sector during their early experiments with national services as well as on the efforts of the voluntary movement to get services fully utilized. Public and private sector activities tent to become mutually supportive. No voluntary association has been able to develop a nationwide clinic service alone. Government involvement provides essential public health facilities. Family planning organizations, in continuing roles as catalyst and pressure group, can be vital to emerging national programs, and can assist governments with problems of training, administration, distribution and coordination which are essential to the efficient delivery of services.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.