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Monitoring and evaluating actions implemented to confront AIDS in Brazil: civil society's participation.
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:88-93.The United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS recommends that governments conduct periodic analysis of actions undertaken in confronting the HIV/ AIDS epidemic that involve civil society's participation. Specific instruments and mechanisms should be created towards this end. This paper examines some of the responses of the Brazilian government to this recommendation. Analysis contemplates the Declaration's proposals as to civil society's participation in monitoring and evaluating such actions and their adequacy with respect to Brazilian reality. The limitations and potentials of MONITORAIDS, the matrix of indicators created by Brazil's Programa Nacional de DST/AIDS [National Program for STD/AIDS] to monitor the epidemic are discussed. Results indicate that MONITORAIDS's complexity hampers its use by the conjunction of actors involved in the struggle against AIDS. The establishment of mechanisms that facilitate the appropriation of this system by all those committed to confronting the epidemic in Brazil is suggested. (author's)
The level of effort in the national response to HIV / AIDS: the AIDS Program Effort Index (API), 2003 round.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 2003 Dec.  p.The success of HIV/AIDS programs can be affected by many factors, including political commitment, program effort, socio-cultural context, political systems, economic development, extent and duration of the epidemic , and resources available. Many programs track low-level inputs (e.g., training workshops conducted, condoms distributed) or outcomes (e.g., percentage of acts protected by condom use). Measures of program effort are generally confined to the existence or lack of major program elements (e.g., condom social marketing, counseling and testing). To assist countries in such evaluation efforts, several guides have been developed by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and other organizations (see, for example, “Meeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes” and “National AIDS Programs: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Programs”). However, information about the policy environment, level of political support, and other contextual issues affecting the success and failure of national AIDS programs has not been addressed previously. (excerpt)
WORLD HEALTH. 1988 Jan-Feb; 10-11.In 1979 WHO invited its member states to participate in a global strategy for health and to monitor and evaluate its effectiveness using a minimum of 12 indicators. Members' 1982 implementation reports and 1985 evaluation reports form the basis for evaluating each measure. Indicators 1-6 have strong political and economic components in both developed and developing countries and are not complete. Indicator 7, for which rates of reply are satisfactory, asks whether at least 5 elements of primary health care are available to the whole population. The 8th gauge seeks information on the nutritional status of children, considering birth weight (a possible indicator of risk) and weight for age (a monitor of growth). Infant mortality rate and life expectancy at birth, indicators 9 and 10, are difficult to estimate in developing countries, and health services are not always kept informed of current estimates. Indicator 11 asks whether the literacy rate exceeds 70%; it can provide information on level of development and should emphasize literacy for women, for whom health information is critical. The last global measure yields information about the gross national product, which is not always the most recent, despite the trend of countries to publish their gross domestic product. Failure to make use of the best national sources, such as this, is one of several problems encountered by WHO's member states in collecting accurate data. Other problems include lack of universally acceptable definitions, different national accounting systems, disinterest of health authorities in economic matters, lack of staff, lack of financial resources in developing countries, and inadequately structured health system management. Each country must choose the most appropriate methods for collection of data. If an indicator cannot be calculated, the country is encouraged to seek and devise a substitute. WHO must produce more precise and reliable indicators. It must respond to requests for ways of improving or strengthening national systems.