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  1. 1
    776631

    Annual Report for 1977 to the Joint Coordinating Committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1977. 28 p. (OCP/STAC/77.2)

    The STAC (Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee) is evaluating the feasibility for economic development in the Volta River Basin. The main obstacle is the danger of onchocerciasis which could lead to blindness. The onchocerciasis control program hopes to reduce the disease to a low enough level that it no longer poses a major health problem or an obstacle to socio-economic development as well as to maintain the disease at a tolerable level. Therefore, studies, plans, and recommendations on insecticides are being made. The program is treating waterways with Abate, a biodegradable larvicide, in addition to undertaking parasitological surveillance. Blackflys are captured and their larvae are analyzed; data is recorded; and tests are conducted to detect any insecticide resistance. The STAC also examined villagers to diagnose human microfilariae in their skin and determine if eye lesions were present. Treatment currently used to combat the disease is either by nodulectomy and/or chemotherapy, but neither is fully effective and mass treatment is difficult. Metrifonate is a promising drug which affects the microfilariae in the cornea without irritating the anterior segment of the eye. Although there are some difficulties in overcoming onchocerciasis, reclamation of the valleys will benefit the population.
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  2. 2
    092100

    Nepal: "a problem of governance".

    Bhattarai B

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1993; 2(4):10-3.

    Nepal faces the choice between sustainable development in a fragile mountain environment in balance with a growing population or the continuation of stagnation and inertia. The political change of April 1990 created new optimism for the country's 18.5 million people, 70% of who live in abject poverty despite international aid making up 60% of the development budget. The maternal mortality rate stands at an exorbitant 850 deaths/100,000. The life expectancy of women is lower than that of men, and there is only 1 doctor for every 30,000 people, while 90% of births are not attended by a trained practitioner. The annual population growth rate amounts to 2.1%, which could double population in 30 years. This rate had outstripped crop production on a limited supply of land, resulting in the addition of another 250,000 poor people every year to the total. Government policies are skewed; a major hydroelectric project is planned to be constructed in 1994 despite talk about poverty alleviation. The National Conservation Plan of 1988 is in its 3rd phase of implementation, with plans in forestry, irrigation, livestock, and horticulture also being implemented at the request of the World Bank. Family planning lapsed as the vertical delivery system was replaced by a horizontal one encouraging villages to build sub-health posts providing family planning and primary health care. 700 such village health posts exist among 4000 villages, and another 600 are scheduled to open in 1994. Positive signs of meaningful development efforts include the budgetary shift to education, health care, and clean drinking water provision. Decentralization laws passed in 1992 and subsequent local elections aimed at handing over to local people the responsibility for their development assisted by government funds and technical support. The poor and often illiterate people have the manpower to dig irrigation canals and stabilize hillside terraces; therefore, the ruling party's central policy is to mobilize there human resources for development
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  3. 3
    079171

    Health trends and prospects in relation to population and development.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 573-97. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    WHO presented a discussion on health trends and prospects in relation to population and development at the World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania, in 1974. Even though many countries did not have available detailed results of 1970 population censuses, WHO was able to determine using the limited available data that both developing and developed countries could still make substantial reductions in death rates. This room for improvement was especially great for developing countries. Infectious diseases predominated as the cause of death in developing countries, while chronic diseases and accidents predominated in developed countries. Life expectancy at birth in developing countries was lower than that in developed countries (48.3-60.3 years vs. 70 years). Any life expectancy gains were likely to be slower after 1970 than during the 1950-1970 period. WHO claimed that by 2000 almost all of the population in developing and developed countries could reach a life expectancy of 60-65 years and 75-80 years, respectively. WHO stressed the complex interactions among population growth, health, and socioeconomic development. Specifically, an improved health status for both individuals and communities would promote socioeconomic development which in turn appeared to reduce natural increase. Some experts have expressed concern that investment in health services spurs population growth because they reduce mortality. Yet the child survival hypothesis indicated that a reduced infant mortality precedes increased demand for family planning methods and subsequent fertility decline. WHO concurred with the hypothesis and advocated that primary health services and family planning are critical to socioeconomic development. Indeed, family planning services should be integrated with maternal and child health services.
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  4. 4
    796923

    An attainable target?

    El Gamal A

    World Health. 1979 NOv; 6-9.

    Health is not just the absence of disease or infirmity but the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, according to the WHO Constitution. The presence and extent of endemic diseases, the environment, population increase, and health services available are predictable and controllable factors which need addressing. The foremost problem is the establishment of clean and safe water supplies. Immunization against diseases such as smallpox, diptheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and measles is needed along with nutrition education and pre and postnatal care for women and infants. Under the heading of "improved standards of living" comes literacy and economic welfare which can contribute to or impede efforts to attain good health for all by the year 2000. Political upheavals can hamper the implementation of health plans. The countries that most need political stability are the ones plagued by drastic and frequent changes of their political systems. Military hostilities may result in devastation, famine, epidemics, and other health influencing types of suffering. International organizations are required to play a leading role in affecting world public opinion and reducing the suffering resulting from military hostilities and oppressive regimes. If the target of Health for All is to be achieved, many groups will have to cooperate to attain it.
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  5. 5
    796751

    Women, health and human rights.

    Sipila H

    World Health. 1979 Aug-Sep; 6-9.

    The United Nations General Assembly adopted and proclaimed in their Universal Declaration of Human Rights that everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services. Also, motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. Under certain conditions in developing countries food is not available for each child or adult to receive minimum requirements. Women often labor long hours in the field, which, coupled with the responsibility of family raising, leaves them tired and susceptible to disease affecting the entire family. 1975 was offically declared the International Year of the Woman by the United Nations. The objectives were equality of men and women, women's full involvement in societal development, and women's contributions to world peace. Economic development has become the top priority in the last 2 decades, but development cannot be accomplished by unhealthy individuals. The World Plan of Action of 1975 calls for governments to pay special attention to women's special health needs by provideng prenatal, postnatal, and delivery services; gynecological and family planning services during the reproductive years.
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  6. 6
    792521

    World population policies.

    Singh JS

    In: Singh JS, ed. World Population policies. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1979. 228 p.

    The World Population Plan of Action synthesizes major points raised at the 1974 Bucharest Conference and numerous United Nations resolutions between 1966-74. Population and development are interrelated. Individuals and couples have the rights to decide freely the number and spacing of their children and should have the knowledge and means to do so. Population policies, programs, and goals are to be formulated and implemented at the national level within the context of specific economic, social, and cultural conditions of the respective countries. International strategies cannot work unless the underprivileged of the world achieve a significant improvement in their living conditions. It is recommended that countries with population problems impeding their development establish goals for reducing population growth by 1985. A life expectancy of 50 years is another suggested 1985 goal; also infant mortality rates of less than 120/1000 live births. Networks of small and medium sized cities should be strengthened for regional development and population distribution. Fair and equitable treatment is urged for migrant workers. Population measures, data collection, and population programs should be integrated into economic plans and programs. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to $2 million in 1960 and $350 million by 1977.
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  7. 7
    792211

    Draft National Health Policy: comments and suggestions of the Indian Medical Association.

    Indian Medical Association

    JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 1979 Mar 16; 72(6):137-43, 148.

    The International Conference on Primary Health Care called for urgent and effective national and international action to develop and implement primary health care throughout the world. All government agencies should support primary health care by channelling increased technical and financial support to health care systems. Any national health policy designed to provide for its people should recognise the right to health care as a fundamental right of people. The sociocultural environment of the people should be upgraded as a part of health care. The government's expenditure on health should be regarded as an investment, not as a consumption. Health should be a purchasable commodity. Medical education should be reoriented to the needs of the nation. The government should establish as its ultimate goal the provision of scientific medical service to every citizen. Industrial health and mental health disciplines should establish clear-cut methodologies to achieve the same objectives as medical science. Practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine should be allowed to practice only those systems in which they are qualified and trained. Integration of the modern and traditional systems has failed. In order to encourage people to adopt small family size, facilities for maternal and child welfare clinics, coupled with immunisation and nutrition programs, are needed.
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  8. 8
    791259

    Thailand: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 p

    This report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
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  9. 9
    790339

    Governments urged to adopt population policies in line with national aims.

    UN Monthly Chronicle. 1979 Mar; 16(3):27-28.

    At a meeting held January 29-February 9, the 27 member Population Commission, a functional body of the UN Economic and Social Council, approved a series of recommendations on population policy. Countries with high mortality rates were urged to provide primary health care to all people by 1985. Further recommendations were for governments to evaluate demographic trends when forming policy and participate in the 1980 World Population and Housing Census Program. Also, governments should give priority to women's participation in educational, social, economic, and political opportunities, greater land distribution, educational opportunities; elimination of child labor, and minimum age for marriage. Governments affected by migrations should consult with countries of origin and harmonize policies. The Commission further recommended an international computer based population information network be established for the coordination of regional, national, and nongovernmental population information activities.
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  10. 10
    258323

    Population and family health in Thailand.

    Perkin GW

    Unpublished Ford Foundation paper, Nov. 1967. 20 p

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  11. 11
    783212

    Multi-year population strategy--Arab Republic of Egypt.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Egypt, USAID. 1978 March; 82.

    A review of Egypt's population/family planning policy and assessment of the current population problem is included in a multi-year population strategy for USAID in Egypt, which also comprises: 1) consideration of the major contraints to expanded practice of family size limitation; 2) assessment of the Egyptian government's commitment to fertility control; 3) suggestions for strengthening the Egyptian program and comment on possible donor roles; and 4) a recommended U.S. strategy and comment on the implications of the recommendations. The text of the review includes: 1) demographic goals and factors; 2) assessment of current population efforts; 2) proposed approaches and action for fertility reduction in Egypt; and 4) implication for U.S. population assistance. Based on analysis of Egyptian population program efforts, the following approaches are considered essential to a successful program of fertility reduction: 1) effective management and delivery of family planning services; 4) an Egyptian population educated, motivated and participating in reducing family size; 5) close donor coordination; and 6) emphasis on the role of women.
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  12. 12
    784293

    Local responses to global problems: a key to meeting basic human needs.

    STOKES B

    Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, February 1978. (Worldwatch Paper No. 17) 64 p

    According to a World Bank estimate, large scale international efforts to improve social and economic conditions in developing countries would cost 47.1 billion dollars between 1980-2000. Since rich countries have not been disposed in the past to contribute heavily toward solving these problems, it is unlikely that they will commit themselves to this type of financial help in the future. Collective, self-help efforts on the local level may offer a feasible alternative for aleviating global problems of inadequate housing, food shortages, insufficient medical care, and energy shortages. Small scale efforts which enlist community involvement in the initiation, planning, and carrying out of projects are frequently more effective in creating uplift than are larger efforts controlled by individuals outside the community. Attempts to provide better housing for the poor through building large public housing complexes are costly and tend to create non-livable conditions for many of the poor; self-help efforts such as homesteading and rehabilitation, on the other hand, have been more successful. In developing areas massive national programs to relocate squatters have failed. Efforts to help squatters improve the dwellings they presently inhabit may be a more fruitful approach. The recent emphasis on garden plots for urban dwellers and small labor intensive family farms along with marketing cooperatives in the rural areas may reduce malnutrition and protect the poor from inflationary food prices. At the present time 1/5 of the world's population is still without medical care and many others have inadequate health care. The mobilization of individuals for self care, especially in regard to disease prevention, and the decentralization of health services through the establishment of neighborhood health centers, family planning clinics, and systems utilizing barefoot doctors can help overcome present health deficiencies. The energy problem can be partially solved by individual efforts to conserve resources. Many individuals and communities are developing local solar, wind, and water sources and are thus reducing reliance on the highly centralized energy industries.
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  13. 13
    776312

    Impact of population assistance to an African country: report to the Congress.

    United States. Comptroller General

    .. Washington, D.C., U.S. General Accounting Office, June 23, 1977 65 p. (ID-77-3)

    Although the population policy of Ghana stresses integration of population control with national development policy, little actual integration has occurred. Development efforts encouraging small families will be more actively supported by USAID in the future. Ghana's high birth rate (3%) impedes social and economic development. As the mortality rate falls, the growth rate rises. The results of population growth include increased food imports, crowded health facilities, and a smaller number of eligible students in school. More than 70% of the people live in rural areas; 60% employment is in agriculture. Experience in the Danfa project showed family planning was more acceptable to rural people when integrated with other medical services.
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  14. 14
    783179

    Mali: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, December 1978. (Report No. 8) 94 p

    This report is intended to diagnose the areas in which future population assistance is most needed by Mali in its efforts to solve its population problems as a step on the way to higher levels of social and economic devleopment. A summary of the recommendations of the Mission and the underlying reasons for those recommendations constitutes the 1st chapter of the report, followed in chapter 2 by a description of some outstanding aspects of the national setting relevant to planning for development; the objectives of the national plan; and an analysis of population issues and development planning in Mali. Subsequent chapters examine needs for assistance in respect of basic population data; population policy and research; and implementation of the national population policy (covering health and family planning and information, education and communications). External assistance to Mali for population is then reviewed briefly, and the report concludes with a statement of the Mission's views on the assistance needed in population, from UNFPA or from any other sources.
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  15. 15
    766229

    U.S. development aid programs in West Africa. (Committee Print)

    United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on International Relations

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, March 22, 1976. 56 p

    A report of the staff survey team of the Committee on International Relations, whose review had the objectives of assessing the opportunities, challenges and obstacles to the introduction of effective family planning programs and population control programs into the West African environment, evaluates several aspects of U.S. development assistance programs in West Africa including: 1) population/family planning programs; 2) the Senegal River Basin project; and 3) reimbursable development programs in Nigeria. Population planning activities are reviewed for Nigeria; Ghana; Sierra Leone; Ivory Coast; Upper Volta; Senegal; and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It is concluded that despite the clear requirement for most nations in West Africa to curb high population growth rates if economic development is to be facilitated, little or nothing is being done in the countries visited. Information is provided for each country on family planning and population projects and organizations; sources of aid and funding; and health services available, concluding with a summary and comment. The Senegal River Basin project is reviewed, concluding that alternate strategies of fulfilling the U.S. pledge to the long-term development of the Sahel be thoroughly explored. Information provided on reimbursable development programs in Nigeria includes: 1) summary of findings; 2) program background; 3) Nigeria as an AID "graduate"; 4) Nigerian economic planning; 6) reimbursable development programs; and 7) staffing.
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  16. 16
    755393

    Population policy and its implementation.

    GAISIE SK; ADDO NO; JONES SB

    In: Caldwell, J.C., ed. Population growth and socioeconomic change in West Africa. New York, Published for the Population Council by Columbia University Press, 1975. p. 408-424

    From 1921 to 1960 the population of Ghana more than tripled. The growth rate was estimated at 2.7-3.0% per year. Population expansion was encouraged by President Kwame Nkrumah as part of his economic development program. By 1967, a new government and a new attitude changed Ghana's population policy to a more modern, antinatalist position. The Ghana Planned Parenthood Association began offering contraceptive and family planning education in March, 1967. In 1969, the National Liberation Council published a "Population Planning for National Progress and Prosperity" policy paper. The National Family Planning Program, funded by the International Planned Parenthood Association, established a systematic program in 1970 under the office of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. The unique feature of the Ghanaian program is that family planning has historically been recognized as an intrinsic part of economic development. Initially, family planning services will be established in large government hospitals. Private resources such as midwives, paramedical personnel, the Planned Parenthood Association, private hospitals are coordinated under the Ministry of Finance. A Director of Information and Educational Services oversee mass media, public communication, and grassroots service organizations. Immigration laws have not been enforced until 1969 when an Aliens Compliance was issued and enforced the following year. The planned immigration policy will be severely restrictive to ameliorate problems of unemployment and population growth.
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  17. 17
    703104

    Towards a philosophy of health work in the African region.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo, WHO, (AFRO Technical Papers. 1970; 1:38.

    The African region has the following health-related problems in common: 1) high morbidity and mortality due to a prevalence of communicable diseases and nutritional deficiencies; 2) inadequate basic health services; and 3) a shortage of medical personnel. The interrelationships between health and economic growth are stressed. An integrated health approach, i.e., 1 in which preventive and curative work is combined, must be followed. The public health priorities for the African region are discussed in detail. Health planning must be dynamic, responding to an ever-changing health situation. Health planning, integrated with socioeconomic development plans, is discussed. Ways to meet the manpower shortages in the region are outlined. Programs for dealing with the following health problems are proposed: 1) malaria; 2) smallpox; 3) environmental health problems; and 4) health education. International aid for health services in Africa must be directed toward eventual health self-sufficiency in the region.
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  18. 18
    732366

    The family planning movement and population control.

    Henderson J

    How many people? A Symposium. Foreign Policy Association, 1973. (Headline Series No. 218) p. 7-15. December 1973

    The progress of the family planning and population control movements are traced with particular regard to the significant role played by early volunteer organizations like the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which was formed in 1952 by the National Family Planning Associations of India, the U.S., Britain, Hong Kong Germany, Holland, Sweden and Singapore. Global recognition of the population problem has been fostered in part by the universal trend toward urbanization, the sharp reduction in maternal and child deaths, the gradual improvement in the status of women, and other social changes which created a demand for better living conditions. The current trend toward assessing national development prospects in terms of social objectives represents a merger between demographic policy and family planning programs. This union between the public and private sector is largely due to the efforts of voluntary family planning groups who have sought to demonstrate that provision of birth control services and education would result in individual efforts to control fertility. Pioneers like the IPPF lobbied and forced action on the evidence that family size and population growth are related integrally to the social and economic progress which the UN and national governments were trying to create. In the mid-60s, the UN officially recognized the efforts of volunteer agencies and within 2 years, the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, UNESCO, UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture Organization acknowledged the contribution of family planning to their own efforts to improve living standards. By 1965, family planning had been introduced in 92 countries and governments committed to population control numbered 10. The IPPF has received increased funding from the U.S., Britain and Sweden to supplement their aid to emerging voluntary organizations which are still dependent on private funding. Governments rely on the private sector during their early experiments with national services as well as on the efforts of the voluntary movement to get services fully utilized. Public and private sector activities tent to become mutually supportive. No voluntary association has been able to develop a nationwide clinic service alone. Government involvement provides essential public health facilities. Family planning organizations, in continuing roles as catalyst and pressure group, can be vital to emerging national programs, and can assist governments with problems of training, administration, distribution and coordination which are essential to the efficient delivery of services.
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