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M. A. thesis, Univ. of Chicago, Division of the Social Sciences, Dec. 1973. 90 p.In the summer of 1971 the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK), with the concurrence of the Korean government, launched a new phase in the Korean family planning program--"Stop at Two" movement. With this step the 10 year old family program became the 1st in the world to openly advocate and propogate through communications the 2-child family norm. Since then the movement has been vigorously pressed through all communications channels in spite of traditional norms and the need for major outside funding. The decision to actively bring the "Stop at Two" idea to the public was based largely on the implications for the future of the success of the 1st 10 years of the national family planning program. The Korean government has set an optimistic population growth rate target for the next 5 years--1.5 to be achieved by 1976. To reach these goals it is estimated that 45% of the eligible population will have to be regularly using some form of contraception. At 1 time or another the PPFK, supporting the national program, has used every conceivable method of communication to inform, motivate, and persuade the Korean population to adopt family planning. An attempt has been made to carefully analyze problem areas in the family planning program for which communication research is needed or would be relevant. An effort is made to show how the information obtained could be used to deal effectively through communication with the conditions presented by the problem. Communication research and evaluation techniques which would be most valuable to Korea are described. A research and evaluation design which spells out the components of a program of research intended to support the already published communication strategy of the Korean family planning over the next 3 years is included.
[Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, 1979.] 110 p. (Contract AID/pha/C-1100)This reports the Third Evaluation of the Thailand National Family Program and was prepared by the entire joint Thai-American evaluation team. The summary of findings states that the NFPP has successfully achieved its target to date. The population growth rate will reach the goal of 2.1% per annum set by the Fourth Economic and Social Development Plan. It was further recommended that if the record of achievement is to be maintained through the Fifth 5-year plan (1982-6), increasing levels of support are needed both from the government and international donors. Further recommendations state that the National Family Planning Program (NFPP) should continue to focus its efforts on all regions of the country, including Bangkok. The NFPP should prioritize those georgraphic areas and segments of the population where family planning acceptance is low and/or availability of information and services are not fully developed. Targets should be set in terms of a combination of new and continuing acceptors in the next 5-year plan. Greater emphasis should be given to management and supervision at the village and health center levels. The international donor community should give full recognition to the necessity of maintaining a level of direct support for the NFPP to assist the Royal Thai Government (RTG) in achieving the goals of the Fifth National Economic and Social development Plan (1982-6). The RTG and donor agencies should continue to support public and private sector activities in voluntary sterilization.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 163 p.Focus in the proceedings of the joint International Planned Parenthood Federation and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Conference on lactation, fertility, and the working woman is on the following: 1) perspectives of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS); 2) lactation and infertility interaction; 3) United Nations appraoches; 4) the social context (breastfeeding and the working woman, breast feeding in decline, and women's liberation and breastfeeding); and 5) case studies for the countries of France, Egypt, Ghana, Scandinavia, Chile, Indonesia, Lebanon, Yugoslavia, Singapore, and Sri Lanka. Breastfeeding supplies nutrition specifically adapted to the human infant's needs, mother/child interaction important to emotional development, and biological birth spacing resulting from maternal hormonal changes brought about by sucking. Over the last 50 years, there has been a marked decline in breastfeeding, originally in industrialized countries. Since the end of World War 2, there has been a decline in breastfeeding in developing nations. Recent scientific research has shown increasing evidence of the unique value of human milk and breastfeeding for infants in industrilized countries and developing areas. As women have become more emancipated, conflicts have arisen between their biological family reproductive role and their role as salaried workers outside the home.
A report on UNFPA/EWPI Technical Working Group Meeting on Integration of Family Planning with Rural Development, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii 15-18 February 1978.
New York, UNFPA, 1979. 37 p. (Policy Development Studies No. 1)Unifunctional family planning programs have proven limited in dealing with the multifaceted nature of fertility regulation. Effective fertility regulation must be accompanied by improvement of socioeconomic conditions for the rural population. The organizational arrangements for the integration of family planning into other services is the main topic of this report. Many questions of integration of services cannot be answered in generalities; specific guidelines need to be applied to specific situations. Under certain circumstances family planning integration with rural development can improve the program and advance development. The partners in integration should be chosen with consideration for the conditions in each location. It is preferable to link specialized services at the point of service delivery. Plans which create large umbrella agencies should be viewed with caution. Integration in the form of community-based family planning programs can often help increase popular participation and acceptance to make family planning more successful. In the initial stages of integration, voluntary agencies or neutral government agencies can be helpful in coordinating specialized government agencies when jurisdictional concerns preclude effective intragency exchanges. Integration programs may be efficient and cost-effective in the long run, but they may require a sizeable initial investment.
London, IPPF, 1979 Oct. 47 p.The development of family planning programs in Colombia is outlined in this IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation)-sponsored report. Introductory demographic data are provided including information on the geography, economy, population dynamics, and available health services; this section is followed by a discussion of the government policy, which first became evident in 1968 with the inception of the national Maternal Child Health (MCH) program; the development of this program was in the face of active Catholic opposition and active leftwing proponents. Through 1979 the MCH program is still functioning with 100,000 new acceptors/year; in addition, the government only minimally inhibits the actions of nongovernment programs, such as PROFAMILIA, and allows for liberal regulations on such matters as prescription of contraceptives. The report then details the developments of individual family planning programs, some of which failed to survive the politically turbulent 1970s, e.g., ASCOFAME (Asociacion Colombiana de Facultades de Medicina), and others of which remain viable, e.g., PROFAMILIA; both of these programs are basically medical and have resulted in the following statistics of contraceptive protection from .1 in 1965 (per 1000 woman/years)-484.2 in 1975. Details of funding are provided, and expenditures and costs are presented tabularly. In addition to clinic programs, rural programs such as CBD (an adjunct of PROFAMILIA) were pioneered in Colombia, the structure of which has been emulated by all other field programs. Aspects of marketing (social marketing and mail order, e.g.,) are described and the personnel structure of PROFAMILIA is outlined. External funding of PROFAMILIA represents about 65% of its funding, and locally derived income provides the additional 35%.
Research on the biomedical aspects of fertility regulation and on the operational aspects of family planning programmes.
Background paper prepared by The World Health Organization for the World Population Conference, Bucharest, Romania, August 19-30, 1974. 34 p.The potential role of research and development in the solution of problems that have emerged in most family planning programs, i.e., the availability of methods of birth control to meet a variety of personal needs and preferences, is discussed. Topics include 1) research on the biomedical aspects of fertility regulation, 2) research on the operational aspects of family planning in health services, 3) a strategy for research, and 4) the World Helath Organization's program of research. There is a need for a wide range of contraceptive methods. The quest for an "ideal contraceptive" is based on the mistaken and simplistic assumption that any single method would be universally acceptable. Current research and development of methods of fertility regulation are carried out to improve existing methods, to assess their suitability in different populations, and to develop new technology. Various methods of contraception are discussed. The successful implementation of a family planning program depends ultimately on the extent and consistent use by individuals and couples of birth planning practices. The factors that motivate them in this regard include social prescriptions on parenthood, cultural considerations affecting conjugal relationships and sexuality, and values attached to children. Base-line data on these factors obtained from different communities are essential to the development by health authorities of appropriate informational, educational, and clinical services.
IPPF Situation Report, May 1972. 5 pAll the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of the Republic of Vietnam are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Vietnamese Association for the Protection of Family Happiness are presented. Conservative Catholic opinion considers family planning activity controversial. Contraception is widely practiced by those who can afford to pay for it and the practice is considered private, not open to government interference. The government is showing increasing i nterest in the question of population. Current educational, clinic, training, and research activities are summarized. International organizations providing aid are enumerated.