Your search found 4 Results
Report on progress in implementing the Health Initiative: Equitable Access to Basic Health Services. Informe sobre los avances en la implementacion de la Iniciativa de Salud: Acceso Equitativo a los Servicios Basicos de Salud.
Washington, D.C., PAHO, . , 42 p.This report presents the progress of the implementation of the Health Initiative: Equitable access to basic health services in the Americas. In accordance with the 1994 Miami Plan of Action, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and WHO presented this summary of the progress achieved in regional work towards the goal of Initiative 17: Equitable Access to Basic Health Services. Initiative 17 is the government s endorsement on the maternal and child health objectives for the 1990 World Summit for Children, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The endorsement reaffirms their commitment toward reducing child mortality by one-third and maternal mortality by one-half from 1990 levels by the year 2000. Also included in this summary is progress in other initiatives that are also related to the work of PAHO in the Hemisphere. In parallel with the Summit of the Americas, the Wives of Heads of States and Governments of the Americas held a Symposium on Health of the Children of the Americas. This symposium resulted in several health actions that have impacted the Initiative 17 program and other related projects.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1990 Jan-Mar; 34(1):48-52.The WHO Global Diarrhoeal Disease Control (CDD) Programme has been implemented in at least 110 member countries. It encourages oral rehydration therapy (ORT) as the chief means to reduce child mortality caused by diarrhea. Despite relatively high ORT access rates ORT (20%->70% in Africa and South East Asia respectively, 1989), oral rehydration solution (ORS) use is inadequate (12.1-26.7% Africa and Eastern Mediterranean respectively, 1988) as well as ORT use (19.2-39.8% Africa and Eastern Mediterranean respectively, 1988). These poor results could be a factor of diminished knowledge and inadequate numbers of trained staff. Yet 58 countries now produce ORS and worldwide production increased from 100-350 million 1 between 1983-1987. In India, however, at least 75% of ORS brands do not meet WHO standards. Further 0.5-1 million <5 year olds succumb annually due to diarrhea (25% of all deaths among <5 year olds). In addition, about 500 million episodes of diarrhea occur each year. ORT is required in 50-100 million of these episodes and hospitalization is needed for 5 million. The Indian CDD program has reduced child mortality from diarrhea by 50% between 1981-1990. It operates under a 3 tier strategy including home management with ORS, and hospital management with ORS and/or IV fluids. This strategy faces several obstacles. For example, mothers in some villages do not know the village health guides who teach mothers how to make ORS. Besides few are motivated at the village level to teach this to mothers. According to government studies, ORT use varies in India from 36-96.3%, but according to operational research by the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, ORT use in the best health facilitate is only 11-12%.
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1983 Aug; 29(4):217-9.The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in 1974 based on the belief that most countries already had some elements of national immunization activities which could be successfully expanded if the program became a national priority with a commitment from the government to provide managerial manpower and funds. The federal government of Nigeria quickly adopted the policy of WHO on EPI and urged the state governments to set up administrative arrangements for planning and implementation of EPI. The program started off in Oyo State of Nigeria after a pilot study conducted at Ikire in Irewole Local Government area in 1975. The stated objectives of the programs were: to provide immunization service to at least 85% of the target population e.g. children under 4 years; and to integrate immunization programs into routine activities of all static primary health centers in the state. This study focuses on administration of the immunization program in the Oranmiyan Local Government area of Oyo State, within the structure of the local government health system and the field health administration of the state government. This study shows that the stated objectives of the EPI are not likely to be achieved in the near future because of low coverage of the eligible population, due to inadequate community involvement in the planning and implementation of the program; 2) poor communication between different government departments; and 3) inadequate publicity. The effect of improvement in health status because of immunization programs, has been very difficult to demonstrate in Nigeria because a lack of accurate data on birth, morbidity, and mortality patterns of the population. Other socioeconomic and health factors of significance in the battle against infectious diseases include environmental sanitation, adequate and safe water supply, housing and nutrition. Nevertheless, immunization programs constitute one of the most economical and effective approaches to the prevention of communicable diseases and can produce dramatic effects in the battle to lower infant and childhood mortaltiy rates in the developing countries if they are well implemented.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH EDUCATION. 1974; 17(4):235-47.Extracts from the backgound paper for the Consultation Meeting of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization are presented. The meeting's purpose was to obtain specific recommendations that might be used by WHO, PAHO, and the member countries in developing educational personnel for programs dealing with family health and health aspects of reproduction. After reviewing the problems in Latin America and the Caribbean, the various kinds of constraints which have implications for health problems are examined, and key issues relating to family health are analyzed. Many health experts maintain that the family planning approach is the most effective and least expensive means of reducing maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, yet in most countries it is perceived primarily as a means of containing or reducing population growth. In most family planning programs the number of new acceptors appears to be the criterion for measuring success; little if any emphasis is given to continuation of use, teaching the health reasons for regulating reproduction, or increasing acceptance among women with high health risks. In some programs, eligibility requirements are such that many women of high health risk cannot be served. Thus far, research and studies to promote the development of the educational component of family planning programs or to orient selection of educational methodology have had minimal support. In most countries the full potential of the resources invested to achieve improvements in maternal and child health is not being realized. This is partly because of the fact that there is no explicit national policy giving direction to the development of an integrated approach. Few countries have policies and plans for health manpower development and utilization that are based on a careful analysis of priority health needs.