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Epidemiology of measles in the central region of Ghana: a five-year case review in three district hospitals.
East African Medical Journal. 2003 Jun; 80(6):312-317.Objective: As part of a national accelerated campaign to eliminate measles, we conducted a study, to define the epidemiology of measles in the Central Region. Design: A descriptive survey was carried out on retrospective cases of measles. Setting: Patients were drawn from the three district hospitals (Assin, Asikuma and Winneba Hospitals) with the highest number of reported cases in the region. Subjects: Records of outpatient and inpatient measles patients attending the selected health facilities between 1996 and 2000. Data on reported measles eases in all health facilities in the three study, districts were also analysed. Main outcome measures: The distribution of measles eases in person (age and sex), time (weekly, or monthly, trends) anti place (residence), the relative frequency, of eases, and the outcome of treatment. Results: There was an overall decline in reported eases of measles between 1996 and 2000 both in absolute terms and relative to other diseases. Females constituted 48%- 52% of the reported 1508 eases in the hospitals. The median age of patients was 36 months. Eleven percent of eases were aged under nine months; 66% under five years and 96% under 15 years. With some minor variations between districts, the highest and lowest transmission occurred in March and September respectively. Within hospitals, there were sporadic outbreaks with up to 34 weekly eases. Conclusion: In Ghana, children aged nine months to 14 years could be appropriately targeted for supplementary, measles immunization campaigns. The best period for the campaigns is during the low transmission months of August to October. Retrospective surveillance can expediently inform decisions about the timing and target age groups for such campaigns. (author's)
Geneva, WHO, 1976. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 600) 98 p.Approximately 125 million infants were born in 1975 and approximately 10-12 million died before their first birthday. The WHO Expert Committee on Maternal and Child Health met in Geneva December 9-15, 1975 to consider new approaches and trends in delivering maternal and child care health services. The Committee decided to redefine health problems and adapt delivery of services in light of social and environmental changes. The effect of careful and informed mothering on the health of the entire family and the relation of family health to community health are important factors in individual, national, and community development. The roles of environmental and socioeconomic factors in mortality, morbidity, and growth and development have been further clarified during the last decade. In countries where data was not previously available, the mmultiple causation of the main health problems of mothers and children has been better documented. The priority health problems are related to the synergistic effects of malnutrition, infection, and unregulated fertility, together with poor socioeconomic conditions and scarcity of health services.
Seminar on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children, Khartoum, Sudan, February 10-15, 1979.
Alexandria, Egypt, WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1979 Mar. 43 p.The papers presented at this seminar were "Nutritional Taboos and Traditional Practices in Pregnancy and Lactation Including Breast-feeding Practice"; "Dietary Practice and Aversions during Pregnancy and Lactation Among Sudanese women"; "Traditional Feeding Practices in Pregnancy"; "Nutritional Taboos and Traditional Practices in Pregnancy and Lactation Including Breast-feeding Practices"; "Traditional Practices on Confinement and After Childbirth"; "Traditional Practices in Relation to Childbirth in Kenya"; "Traditional Practices in Child Health in Sudan"; Traditional Practices in Pregnancy and Childbirth in Ethiopia"; "Tobacco and Reproduction Health: Practices and Implications in Traditional and Modern Societies"; "Female Circumcision in the World of Today: a Global Review"; "Mental Aspects of Circumcision"; "Female Circumcision in Egypt"; and papers on female circumcision from Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia. Other papers included "Psycho-Social Aspects of Female Circumcision"; "Sudanese Children's Concepts About Female Circumcision"; "A Study on Prevalence and Epidemiology of Female Circumcision in Sudan Today"; "Early Teenage Childbirth and its Consequences for both Mother and Child"; "Child Marriage and Early Teenage Pregnancy"; and, "Early Marriage and Teenage Deliveries in Somalia". Recommendations included breast-feeding for the health of the child and day nurseries for the mothers who work.