Your search found 17 Results

  1. 1
    188740

    WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Jansen H

    [Unpublished] 2003. Presented at the Second South African Gender Based Violence and Health Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, May 9, 2003. [29] p.

    [Objectives of the Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence Against Women include]: Obtain valid estimates of prevalence of violence against women in several countries; Document the associations between Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and health variables; Identify risk and protective factors for domestic violence against women, and compare them within and between settings; Explore and compare the strategies used by women who experience domestic violence Develop and test new instruments for measuring violence cross-culturally; Increase national capacity amongst researchers and women’s organizations working on violence; Increase sensitivity to violence among researchers, policy-makers and health providers; Promote new ethic/model of research. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    080980

    The prevalence of anaemia in women: a tabulation of available information. 2nd ed.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme; World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Health Protection and Promotion. Nutrition Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. 100 p.

    The discussion of the prevalence of anemia in women focused on definitions of nutritional anemia, cause of nutritional anemia, and the sources of data and estimation methods. Tables are provided by country and region for hemoglobin levels (mean and percentage below the mean for lactating women, for pregnant women, for nonpregnant women, and all women) and for serum iron, serum folate, and serum vitamin B12 (mean and percentage below the norm). WHO's Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Program is the repository for data. Nutritional anemia is caused by malnutrition such that the hemoglobin content of the blood is lower than normal as a result of deficiency in 1 or more essential nutrients. Iron is usually stored in the bone where it can be used to increase the rate of formation of hemoglobin to satisfy increased needs, such as during pregnancy. Causes of anemia are low nutrient intake, poor absorption or utilization, or increased nutrient losses or demands. Iron is absorbed more readily in the presence of animal foods or vitamin C and inhibited by meals of tea or high levels of bran. Other causes are malaria, sickle cell disease, bacterial infections, blood loss from obstetric causes, or intestinal parasites, such as hookworms. Underlying factors are poverty and hardships from poor nutrition, water shortages, food taboos, inadequacies in food production and storage and the absence of effect systems of social security. Anemia can be a direct cause of death or contribute to hemorrhage, which can lead to death, e.g., an anemic mother during childbirth cannot afford to lose less than 150 ml of blood, compared with a healthy mother's 1 liter blood loss. Anemic mothers have a lower resistance to infection, and surgery poses a risk. WHO anemia levels are determined as < 120 g/L of hemoglobin for nonpregnant adult women and < 110 g.L for pregnant adult women, < .50mg/L serum iron, < 3 ng/ml serum folate concentration, and < 100 pg/ml serum vitamin B12. 2,170 million persons were found to be anemic according to WHO definitions. The most affected groups were pregnant women, preschool age children, low birth weight infants, other women, the elderly, school age children, and adult men. In developing countries, prevalence rates are 40-60% among pregnant women. In developed countries, 18% if pregnant women and 12% of nonpregnant women are anemic. Over 33% of women in the world were anemic; the problem is particularly acute in Asia.
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  3. 3
    132602

    1997 UNICEF annual report covering 1 January to 31 December 1996.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1997 Jun. [4], 66 p.

    This UNICEF annual report identifies highlights for 1996 as the first-ever World Congress against Commercial Exploitation of Children and the UN study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. UNICEF's State of the World's Children Report for 1996 focuses on abuse of children's rights in exploitative child labor. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is being universally ratified. UNICEF has over 200 offices in developing countries. 161 countries have UNICEF programs. Most program funding goes toward child health. The main government donor in total funding is the US. Other top donors in per capita funding are Norway and Sweden. UNICEF encourages the implementation of the 20/20 Initiative, whereby governments of donor and developing countries allocate 20% of their official development assistance to basic social services. UNICEF with its partners assists governments in providing community-based services, which meet the needs of children in cost-efficient ways that are locally sustainable. In 1996, the following changes took place: 1) UNICEF transferred several headquarter functions to regional and country offices; 2) it gave greater authority in the field for program planning and management; 3) it established global, regional, and country office management teams; 4) the administrative and program support budget showed no growth; and 5) budgets became integrated at the headquarters and regional offices. Denmark, Finland, Japan, the Netherlands, and Norway increased their contributions to general resources. This report summarizes regional developments, identifies highlights of the year, and discusses communication, partnerships, and resources and management. Tables and charts identify income by source, per capita contributions, programs from general resources, the top 20 donors, expenditures by sector, and total income by source of funding.
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  4. 4
    117276

    Population and vital statistics report. Data available as of 1 July 1996.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistics Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1996. [2], 19 p. (Statistical Papers Series A Vol. 48, No. 3; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.A/198)

    This issue of the UN Population and Vital Statistics Report presents country-specific birth, death, and population statistics for 233 countries of the world for 1995 and 1996. Data were estimated based on the most current information available from censuses, surveys, and other records. The data are identified by the nature of the base data, the recency of the base data, the method of time adjustment, and the quality of adjustment by type of data. Population figures are given for total, male, and female population and mid-1995 base estimates. Births, infant deaths, and deaths are given for estimated rate, actual rate, and actual number. The world estimates of population were 5.716 billion in 1995 and 5.804 billion in 1996. 1995 regional population estimates include 728 million in Africa, 455 million in North America, 320 million in South America, 3.458 billion in Asia, 727 million in Europe, and 29 million in Oceania. 1996 regional population estimates include an increase to 748 million in Africa, an increase to 462 million in North America, an increase to 325 million in South America, an increase to 3.513 billion in Asia, and a stabilization at 728 million in Europe and 29 million in Oceania.
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  5. 5
    117099

    Mainstreaming the environment. The World Bank Group and the environment since the Rio Earth Summit, Fiscal 1995.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. xv, 301 p.

    Almost all countries of the world agreed with the idea of environmentally sustainable development at the Rio De Janeiro Earth Summit. This report summarizes World Bank activities that directly deal with improving the environment. Part 1 reviews World Bank activities during 1993-95 at the national, regional, and global levels and intellectual efforts toward making development environmentally and socially sustainable. Part 2 focuses on activities in the social sectors, followed by agricultural, energy, transportation, and urban development sectors, which comprise about 60% of Bank activity. Part 2 also discusses activities that did not specifically focus on the environment. Activities include education, health, and nutrition projects and other projects such as irrigation projects, which could adversely affect the environment. Some projects, such as energy projects, are trade-offs between protecting the environment and promoting economic development and poverty reduction. Part 3 illustrates the private sector's role in environmental protection and explains how the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) contribute to environmental sustainability. Both the Bank and the IFC screen operations for their environmental impact. Environmental assessments are available for some projects. The Bank's Public Information Center has since 1994 disclosed environmental information on its projects. This report includes the positive progress to date and discusses areas in need of improvement. The current approach of the Bank includes an emphasis on grassroots participation and implementation, on the incorporation of environmental issues into sectoral and national strategies, and on people and social structures.
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  6. 6
    121729

    Report of the Technical consultation on Female Genital Mutilation, 27-29 March 1996, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1996. 36 p.

    This report presents a summary of the discourse among 58 participants from 25 countries, international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), UN agencies, and African organizations, who attended the Technical Consultation on Female Genital Mutilation during March 1996 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The meeting was sponsored and organized by the UNFPA. About 85-115 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and at least 2 million are at risk. Reproductive and sexual health are affected over the entire life course by FGM. Despite the seriousness of the issue, there are major gaps in knowledge about the extent of the problem and the nature of successful interventions. Expressed concern has not reached the level of legal change or programs for promoting the abandonment of the practice. Dr. Leila Mehra reviewed the main features of FGM, UN policies, and the implications for operations research. Dr. Nahid Toubia gave an assessment of approaches to FGM from a reproductive health, human rights, and historical perspective. The World Health Organization Working Group emphasized the importance of including all physical, psychological, and human rights aspects of FGM in the definition. Dr. Mehra indicated that circumcisers, government policymakers, and NGOs should be targeted. Country-specific presentations focused on Ghana, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, Senegal, and Ethiopia. Participants generally agreed that circumcisers need alternative sources of income and that resistance is widespread. Parents need to be educated. Communities need sex education. Men's and women's groups need to be mobilized to stop FGM. Ms. Ana Angarita proposed a model of the determinants of FGM and potential areas for intervention and summarized the initiatives taken and constraints. Dr. Hamid Rushwan proposed a framework for integrating FGM eradication into three UNFPA program areas.
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  7. 7
    116567

    The state of the world's children 1996.

    Bellamy C

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1996. 103 p.

    This special issue on the state of the world's children commemorates the 50th year of UNICEF. Three main topics are addressed: 1) an anti-war plan and protection of children in armed conflict; 2) a review of 50 years of UNICEF activities directed toward improving child welfare and health; and 3) for each of 150 countries, a statistical compendium of basic indicators of child health, nutrition, education, demography, economic conditions, and women's status. For 40 less populous countries, some basic indicators are compared. The final country-specific table presents measures of human development (the under-five mortality rate and total fertility rate) for 1960, 1980, and 1994 and the average annual rate of reduction during 1960-80 and 1980-94, and required during 1994-2000. Regional summaries are presented in a separate table for the same indicators in the country-specific tables. Chapter I describes the effects of war on children that includes "children thrown into mass graves, wandering without parents, or wasting away in refugee camps." Chapter II delineates the response to the needs of children over a period of 50 years and addresses issues such as violence against children, poverty, and hunger. Child mortality rates have dropped by about 50% and basic immunization has saved many millions of lives. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child was ratified by 179 countries by September 1995. UNICEF believes that the gap between rhetoric and reality presents a challenge for the future and that peacemaking and care efforts have accompanied the tragedies. Today's disputes are viewed as struggles for resources and survival that require an investment in the physical, mental, and emotional development of children. UNICEF's anti-war agenda includes removing child soldiers from battlefields, banning the manufacture of anti-personnel land mines, establishing zones of peace for children, and other preventive actions.
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  8. 8
    115938

    Revised 1990 estimates of maternal mortality: a new approach by WHO and UNICEF.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; UNICEF

    [Unpublished] 1996 Apr. iv, 16 p. (WHO/FRH/MSM/96.11; UNICEF/PLN/96.1)

    This paper gives revised estimates of maternal mortality in 1990 by country and region, WHO regions, and UNICEF regions. The new estimates use available data, adjust for underreporting and misclassification of maternal deaths, and develop a simple model for predicting values for countries without reliable national data. Reliability is expected to be better than that in previously published reports. These estimates are considered baseline estimates that will be compared with estimates in the year 2000. Findings indicate that in 1990 there were 585,000 female deaths due to pregnancy-related causes. This new estimate is 80,000 women higher than previously estimated. Maternal mortality was particularly high in sub-Saharan Africa at 870 maternal deaths/100,000 live births. Maternal mortality was 190/100,000 in Latin America, 560/100,000 in South Central Asia, 440/100,000 in Southeastern Asia, 320/100,000 in Western Asia, and 95/100,000 in Eastern Asia. The maternal mortality ratio was 480/100,000 compared with a previous estimate of 420/100,000 in developing countries and 27/100,000 vs. 26/100,000 in developed countries. The method of estimation relies on the use of general fertility rates and the proportion of births that are assisted.
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  9. 9
    114985

    Population and vital statistics report. Data available as of 1 April 1996.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistics Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Dept. for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistics Division, 1996 Apr. [2], 19 p. (Statistical Papers Series A Vol. XLVIII, No. 2; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.A/197)

    Population and vital statistics are given for 241 countries in the world for the most recent year available or midyear 1994. Data are based on census reports, registration data, and estimation. Statistics include the latest census population figures for total population, male population, and female population. Midyear 1994 estimates are given and identified by type of method of estimation. Vital statistics include registered births and the birth rate and the estimated birth rate, registered deaths and the death rate and estimated death rate, and registered infant deaths and the infant mortality rate and estimated rate. Countries are grouped by region, but regional totals are not provided for specific measures. Total world population was estimated to be 5630 million in mid-1994 and 5716 in mid-1995. Population was concentrated in Asia with 3404 million and 3459 million, respectively. Europe had, respectively, 726 million and 727 million, and Africa had 708 million and 728 million people. North America had 449 million and 455 million people. South America had 314 million and 320 million people. Oceania had 28 million and 29 million people. Population is de facto or the population resident within the present boundaries.
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  10. 10
    113335

    The World Bank annual report 1995.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. 224 p.

    The 1995 annual report of the World Bank provides an overview of the operations of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The IBRD makes loans only to credit-worthy customers and is owned by the governments of 178 countries. The IDA makes interest-free loans mainly to very poor countries but with the same IBRD lending criteria. The IFC is a separate entity that loans to developing countries seeking growth in the private sector without government guarantees. MIGA provides guarantees to foreign investors against losses caused by noncommercial risks and for creating a responsive investment climate. The overview of bank activities in 1995 reveals that World Bank activities have begun to change in accord with conditions where the main source of financing comes from private flows. The Bank's role has shifted to one which serves to bridge the flow of resources from the private sector that fuel economic growth. For countries that are not part of the new global economy of expanded trade and capital flows, the Banks helps these countries develop sound economic policies and investments. The Bank is still developing its role in those countries suffering from economic collapse. The primary changes since 1990 have been in the financing structure of development. In 1994 an estimated $227 billion went to net total resource flows, which were evenly divided between foreign direct investment and private loans. In 1994 China received the bulk of foreign direct investment. Obstacles interfere with official aid flows. The Bank's aim is to become a cost-effective, responsive, flexible institution able to deliver timely, high-quality advice and financing for programs. Six chapters focus on major World Bank programs, operations, regional conditions, other activities, and finances.
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  11. 11
    109927

    Global population assistance report 1993.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. 59 p. (95/34000/E/2000)

    This 1994 UN survey of 114 countries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and multilateral institutions conveys the amount of income for population assistance by source. Reductions in double counting of aid were minimized this year. Each country gave expenditures by recipient. Definitions were given for "core" and "support" population activities. All income was converted into US currency. Analysis was conducted among replies for completeness, internal consistency, and consistency between donor country and recipient country. This report has been produced annually since 1988. Time series data between 1984 and 1993 is available for primary funds by each donor country and the channel of distribution (bilateral, multilateral, or NGO). The same annual years apply to the percentage of primary funds for population assistance as a percentage of official development assistance and as a percentage of gross national product. Final expenditures for population assistance are given by channel of distribution and region during 1984-93 annually and total expenditures per capita by region. Final expenditures by channel of distribution are given separately by country during 1984-93 for sub-Saharan countries, Asian and Pacific Island countries, Latin American and Caribbean countries, Middle Eastern and North African countries, and Eastern European countries. Regional expenditures declined in Africa by 6% in 1993, in Asia by 21%, in eastern Europe by 21%, and in the world by 34%. Increases occurred in the Middle East and North Africa by 26% and in Latin America and the Caribbean by 14%. Final expenditures in 1993 on population programs and projects were $610 million, which represented a decline of 12% since 1992. $581 went to core activities and $29 million went to support activities. Core activities included $430 million for family planning, $52 million for population policy and dynamics, $50 million for data collection and analysis, and $49 million for population education and communication. 40% of assistance was provided by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), of which the largest was the Ford Foundation (17%). Assorted small NGOs contributed 34% of total NGO aid.
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  12. 12
    109918

    Population and vital statistics report. Data available as of 1 October 1995.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistics Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1995 Oct. [2], 19 p. (Statistical Papers Series A Vol. XLVII, No. 4; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.A/195)

    The latest estimates of population size are given for individual countries worldwide for mid-1994 or the latest available years. Statistics are identified by source for population censuses, official population estimates, mid-year estimates for 1994, births (number and rate), deaths (number and rate), and infant deaths (number and rate). Population data for each country of the world are footnoted by the nature of the base data, the recency of base data, the method of time adjustment, and the quality of adjustment, where this qualifying information is known. Vital statistics are described as to whether the data is based on registration. The quality of registration is determined on the basis of whether it is 90% or more complete, estimated to be incomplete, or of unknown quality. Provisional data is so indicated. Estimates calculated by the Population Division of the UN are designated as such. Occurrence data is differentiated from data tabulated by year of registration. Provisional estimates for 1995 show world population totals of 5716 million persons. The largest population concentration is in Asia with 3459 million, followed by Africa with 728 million and Europe with 727 million. North America has 455 million, and South America has 320 million. Oceania is the least populated region with 29 million people.
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  13. 13
    084530

    Global population assistance report, 1982-1989.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1991 Feb 1. [4], 90 p.

    Global population assistance is illustrated in the extensive tables and charts of this volume. Information is given by country and region, by donor commitments, and by expenditures during 1982-89. Previously published 1988 data is adjusted. The data reflect public accounts, which may not be accurate. The four most common accuracy errors are in variable definitions over time and place of what constitutes population assistance, the identification of a single function that is in fact a multiple function, variation in accounting time periods, variations in currencies and in fluctuating exchange rates, and variation in the ability of governments to manage public accounts. The revisions of the 1988 are done with assurance that the extent of total commitment is accurate. Reports that are released just after the end of the fiscal year are considered less accurate. The trends in assistance show expansion from only a few private foundations and the International Planned Parenthood Federation during the 1950s with selected donor support in a few developing countries to Nordic countries by the late 1950s giving support to Asian population assistance. Population technical assistance was formally a part of development assistance in 1966. Level of assistance worldwide has ranged from $100 million in 1967 (1985 prices) to over $10.4 billion (1985 prices) in 1985. The largest multinational donor is the UN Population Fund, which manages about 33% of world population assistance funds. Population assistance flows through three main channels (direct bilateral aid from individual donor countries, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations). Major developed country donors are 17 of the 18 members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Development Assistance Committee (DAC). 74% of total international population assistance in 1989 (valued at $561 million) was given by DAC donors plus the Soviet Union. Other contributions amount to 17% from World Bank loans, 5% from private foundations, and 4% from UN accounts. Norway, followed by the Unites States, and Finland contribute more than two cents per Overseas Development Assistance dollar. All regions receive substantial amounts, although the level per country varies. The largest sums go to large and poor countries.
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  14. 14
    094797

    WHO neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I. Study design and psychiatric findings.

    Maj M; Janssen R; Starace F; Zaudig M; Satz P; Sughondhabirom B; Luabeya MK; Riedel R; Ndetei D; Calil HM

    ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY. 1994 Jan; 51(1):39-49.

    The WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS Study project was to assess the prevalence and natural history of HIV-1-associated psychiatric, neuropsychological, and neurological abnormalities in representative subject samples enrolled in the five geographic areas predominantly affected by the HIV-1 epidemic (Sub-Saharan Africa, North America, Latin America, western Europe, and southeast Asia). Assessment was made by a data collection instrument including six modules. The study consisted of a cross-sectional phase and a longitudinal follow-up. The results of psychiatric assessment revealed that the prevalence of current mental disorders was significantly higher in symptomatic (but not in asymptomatic) HIV-1-seropositive subjects, compared with seronegative controls, in Bangkok and Sao Paulo. This difference remained significant when the analysis was restricted to IV drug users in the former center (21.4% vs 2.1%, P <.01) and to homosexuals/bisexuals in the latter (33.3% vs 5.7%, P <.01). Symptomatic HIV-1-seropositive subjects had consistently higher mean scores on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) compared with those of seronegative controls, and the mean global score was always significantly increased in the former. Only two significant differences on individual items (both in Bangkok) were observed between physically asymptomatic HIV-1-seropositive subjects and controls. The mean MADRS global score was significantly higher in women than in men among symptomatic HIV-1 seropositive subjects who were assessed in Kinshasa (p <.05) and in Munich (p <.001). However, no significant sex difference was found among either HIV-1 seronegative or asymptomatic HIV-1-seropositive persons in any center. The effect of the sex-serogroup interaction on the MADRS global score was found to be significant in Munich (F=10.6, df=2, P <.0001), but the effect of the interaction risk group-serogroup did not reach statistical significance. The correlation between the MADRS global score and the CD4 count was significant only in symptomatic seropositive subjects assessed in Kinshasa and Munich (p <.01).
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  15. 15
    074984

    World development report 1990.

    World Bank

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1990. xii, 260 p.

    The overview of poverty in 1990 is that countries with economic stagnation and rapid population growth have greater poverty. A disproportionate share of poverty belongs to women and children. Life expectancy is lower among the poor. The 1950s' and 1960s' objective was to reduce poverty with growth; the 1970s focused on health, nutritional, and educational services. The 1980s questioned policy and readjusted to global recession. The 1990s need to reexamine how policy can reduce poverty. Well-targeted readjustments of public spending can benefit the poor. External assistance should be more closely linked to country efforts to reduce poverty. Careful judgement is required. If real aid flows at 3% annually and industrial countries grow at 3% annually, the income/capita in developing countries will grow between 5.1%/year in east Asia and .5%/year in Africa. By 2000, the number of poor should be reduced by more than 300 million. Regional variation occurs, however, and sub-Saharan Africa would see an increase of 100 million. The discussion centers on diverging trends in the world economy, the nature of poverty (poor families, measuring poverty, characteristics of the poor, and treatment of poverty), progress on poverty and lessons for the future, promoting opportunities for the poor, delivering social services to the poor, transfers and safety nets, the 1980s, international factors (trade, debt, and aid) in reducing poverty, and future prospects. Statistical tables provide data on population growth for 1965-90, growth rates for 1965-89, population and gross domestic product (GDP) for 1965-89, GDP for 1980, GDP structure of production for 1965-88, sector growth rates for 1965-89, consumption and investment and savings for 1965-88, growth of exports for 1965-88, change in export prices and terms of trade for 1965-89, investment and savings and current account balance before official transfers for 1965-88, and composition of outstanding debt for 1970-88. Caveats regarding the ambitious effort to prevent the number of poor from rising in Africa and reducing poverty in the developing world by 400 million by 2000 are 1) that a less buoyant external environment would strain developing country resources, and 2) failure to undertake policy reforms and reduce income inequality and safeguard social services and real income would reduce potential gains.
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  16. 16
    076199

    UNFPA 1991 report.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1992]. 88 p.

    The UNFPA Annual Report provides a regional review of programs, including those that are interregional, a sectoral review, and other activities. The sectoral review covers family planning (FP), IEC, basic data collection, the use of population research for the formation of policy and development planning, women in population and development, special program interests, and population and the environment. Other activities include promotion of awareness and exchange of information, policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluations, the International conference on Population and Development, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of equipment and supplies, and multibilateral funding of population activities. The appendices include a glossary of terms, the 1991 income and expenditure report, government pledges and payments for 1991, project allocations in 1991 by country and region, governing council decisions for 1991, and 16 resolutions. In spite of the doubling of population from 2 billion in 1960 to 4 billion in 1990, there is optimism because of progress in country's formulation of population policy and programs, i.e., FP use has increased to 51% from 12% to 14% in 1971, and the average number of births has declined 37% from 6 (1965-70) to 3.8. This progress has been accomplished within a short generation, at low cost, and with 70% of the contributions coming from users and country governments in declining economic circumstances. The challenges ahead are dealing with mass poverty and environmental degradation. Actions to reverse the trends should be to change development priorities, attach poverty directly, shift to cleaner technologies, improve the status of women and girls, and include population in development planning. Highlights of 1991 are that income increased 5.6% and pledges 7.2%. The project expenditure rate was 80.6% vs. 80.1% in 1990, and the resource utilization rate was 102.1% vs. 100.2% in 1990. The number and cost of new projects was lower than in 1990. 55 countries were given priority status. Programs were reviewed in 28 countries. There was a 2% increase in professional women staff to 41%.
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  17. 17
    075769

    International cooperation in the area of population.

    Baldwin CS

    POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1991; (31-32):89-103.

    International cooperation in population activities (69 of 73 countries reporting) is still needed according to the 6th UN Population Inquiry among Governments, 1988. There is a decline in need for consultants and priority requests for computer equipment and training. Difficulties have arisen due to funding decreases and slow implementation. The responding sample population involved 108 (79 developing and 29 developed) of 170 member and observer states. Questions pertained to attainment of policy goals, future needs and priorities, and government policies and programs. The questionnaire and response rate were similar to the 5th Survey conducted in 1983. Comparability to developing countries is uncertain since the response was only 60% of 132 developing countries. The population of the developing countries responding was 3.5 billion or 60% of the world's 5.1 billion. The results of the data aggregation are presented in terms of sources of past technical support, relative contribution of technical cooperation, need for technical cooperation on population issues, and statements of governments. The conclusions reached were that all had received support for population programs from international sources. 36 countries reported having 4-6 sources of support, of which 66% were in the UN system. In the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) 80% of the countries assigned technical cooperation as the most important contribution to population progress. Slightly fewer countries from the Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) reported similar impacts. However, >50% also experienced difficulties with technical cooperation. ECA countries had difficulties with reduced funding and slowness in implementation, and minor complaints about poor donor agency coordination, differences in priorities between the government and donors, and too narrow a technical focus. Compared with the last inquiry, family planning was now a priority. Computer equipment and training programs were ranked the highest in technical support. There was some regional variation. Only 8 expressed a negative response to technical cooperation.
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