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New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases [TDR], 2006. 25 p. (TDR/SDI/06.1.)Syphilis is a curable infection caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. This infection is sexually transmitted, and can also be passed on from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy. As a cause of genital ulcer disease, syphilis has been associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission and acquisition. Most persons with syphilis tend to be unaware of their infection and they can transmit the infection to their sexual contacts or, in the case of a pregnant woman, to her unborn child. If left untreated, syphilis can cause serious consequences such as stillbirth, prematurity and neonatal deaths. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy are preventable if the infection is detected and treated before mid-second trimester. Early detection and treatment is also critical in preventing severe long term complications in the patient and onward transmission to sexual partners. Congenital syphilis kills more than one million babies a year worldwide but is preventable if infected mothers are identified and treated appropriately as early as possible. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 2 p.Of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide at the end of 2003, 2.5 million are children under 15 years of age. In 2003 alone, 700,000 children were newly infected with HIV. Most of these infections result from mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, labour and delivery or through breastfeeding. By integrating a comprehensive prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme, through prevention and treatment interventions, as an essential part of maternal, child and newborn health programmes, the PMTCT programme can significantly reduce the number of HIV-infected infants and promote better health for children, mothers and their families. Human capacity building at all levels of the health system is one of the big challenges of setting up HIV/AIDS initiative. The rapidly growing HIV/AIDS pandemic requires global and in-country collaborative efforts to maximise the use of existing human resources and develop strengthened human capacity. Globally, up to 100,000 people need to be trained for the "3 by 5" initiative to reach the target. Meeting that training goal will require strong collaboration among communities, nations, and international organisations. This generic PMTCT training package is designed to provide a template for the development of a national training plan and an appropriate national PMTCT curriculum, based on a rapid adaptation process. For countries that already have begun PMTCT training and have draft materials, this generic training package can be used to update and strengthen the national curriculum and training plan. This training package is an evidence-based course on PMTCT and is targeted to resource-constrained settings. (excerpt)
Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants: guidelines on care, treatment and support for women living with HIV / AIDS and their children in resource-constrained settings.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. v, 49 p.Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the most important source of HIV infection in children. In 2001, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS committed countries to reduce the proportion of infants infected with HIV by 20% by 2005 and by 50% by 2010. Achieving this urgently requires an increase in access to integrated and comprehensive programmes to prevent HIV infection in infants and young children. Such programmes consist of interventions focusing on primary prevention of HIV infection among women and their partners; prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected women; prevention of HIV transmission from HIV-infected women to their children; and the provision of treatment, care and support for women living with HIV/AIDS, their children and families. WHO convened a Technical Consultation on Antiretroviral Drugs and the Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV Infection in Resource-limited Settings in Geneva, Switzerland on 5–6 February 2004. Scientists, policymakers, programme managers and community representatives reviewed the most recent experience with programmes and evidence on the safety and efficacy of various antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for preventing HIV infection in infants. This information was reviewed in the context of the rapid expansion of ARV treatment in resource-constrained settings using standardized and simplified drug regimens. Prior to the Technical Consultation, a draft set of recommendations had been issued for public comment. (excerpt)