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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 100 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual snapshot of the state of the world’s health. This 2018 edition contains the latest available data for 36 health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators. It also links to the three SDG-aligned strategic priorities of the WHO’s 13th General Programme of Work: achieving universal health coverage, addressing health emergencies and promoting healthier populations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 196 p.The World malaria report, published annually, provides a comprehensive update on global and regional malaria data and trends. The latest report, released on 29 November 2017, tracks investments in malaria programmes and research as well as progress across all intervention areas: prevention, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance. It also includes dedicated chapters on malaria elimination and on key threats in the fight against malaria. The report is based on information received from national malaria control programmes and other partners in endemic countries; most of the data presented is from 2016.
Geneva Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 8 p. (Evidence-to-Action Brief; WHO/RHR/17.18)This policy brief is designed to help countries implement the Global STI Strategy. By taking action to build sustainable national and institutional capacity for addressing STIs, countries can ensure that key cost- effective interventions reach the greatest number of people in need.
Casting light on old shadows: Ending sexually transmitted infection epidemics as public health concerns by 2030.
Geneva Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 8 p. (Advocacy Brief; WHO/RHR/17.17)Countries can boost the response to STIs and improve the health of millions of women, men and adolescents by adopting WHO’s Global STI Strategy. Some viral STIs, like human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV, are still incurable and can be deadly, while some bacterial STIs – like chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis – are curable if detected and treated. This brief provide milestones and targets and five strategic directions for countries to develop their own national plans.
A growth reference for mid upper arm circumference for age among school age children and adolescents, and validation for mortality: growth curve construction and longitudinal cohort study.
BMJ. 2017 Aug 03; 358:j3423.Objectives To construct growth curves for mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC)-for-age z score for 5-19 year olds that accord with the World Health Organization growth standards, and to evaluate their discriminatory performance for subsequent mortality.Design Growth curve construction and longitudinal cohort study.Setting United States and international growth data, and cohorts in Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.Participants The Health Examination Survey (HES)/National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) US population datasets (age 5-25 years), which were used to construct the 2007 WHO growth reference for body mass index in this age group, were merged with an imputed dataset matching the distribution of the WHO 2006 growth standards age 2-6 years. Validation data were from 685 HIV infected children aged 5-17 years participating in the Antiretroviral Research for Watoto (ARROW) trial in Uganda and Zimbabwe; and 1741 children aged 5-13 years discharged from a rural Kenyan hospital (3.8% HIV infected). Both cohorts were followed-up for survival during one year.Main outcome measures Concordance with WHO 2006 growth standards at age 60 months and survival during one year according to MUAC-for-age and body mass index-for-age z scores.Results The new growth curves transitioned smoothly with WHO growth standards at age 5 years. MUAC-for-age z scores of -2 to -3 and less than-3, compared with -2 or more, was associated with hazard ratios for death within one year of 3.63 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 14.7; P=0.07) and 11.1 (3.40 to 36.0; P<0.001), respectively, among ARROW trial participants; and 2.22 (1.01 to 4.9; P=0.04) and 5.15 (2.49 to 10.7; P<0.001), respectively, among Kenyan children after discharge from hospital. The AUCs for MUAC-for-age and body mass index-for-age z scores for discriminating subsequent mortality were 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.92) and 0.75 (0.63 to 0.86) in the ARROW trial (absolute difference 0.06, 95% confidence interval -0.032 to 0.16; P=0.2) and 0.73 (0.65 to 0.80) and 0.58 (0.49 to 0.67), respectively, in Kenya (absolute difference in AUC 0.15, 0.07 to 0.23; P=0.0002).Conclusions The MUAC-for-age z score is at least as effective as the body mass index-for-age z score for assessing mortality risks associated with undernutrition among African school aged children and adolescents. MUAC can provide simplified screening and diagnosis within nutrition and HIV programmes, and in research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2017. 116 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2017 compiles data on 21 health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets, with 35 indicators, as well as data on life expectancy. This edition also includes, for the first time, success stories from several countries that are making progress towards the health-related SDG targets.
Efficacy of World Health Organization guideline in facility-based reduction of mortality in severely malnourished children from low and middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2017 May; 53(5):474-479.Aim: Globally more than 19 million under-five children suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Data on efficacy of World Health Organization's (WHO’s) guideline in reducing SAM mortality are limited. We aimed to assess the efficacy of WHO’s facility-based guideline for the reduction of under-five SAM children mortality from low and middle income countries (LMICs). Methods: A systematic search of literature published in 1980–2015 was conducted using electronic databases. Additional articles were identified from the reference lists and grey literature. Studies from LMICs where SAM children (0–59 months) were managed in facilities according to WHO’s guideline were included. Outcome was reduction in SAM mortality measured by case fatality rate (CFR). The review was reported following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline and meta-analyses done using RevMan 5.3®. Results: This review identified nine studies, which demonstrated reductions in SAM mortality. CFR ranged from 8 to 16% where WHO guideline applied. High rates of poverty, malnutrition, severe co-morbid condition, lack of resources and differences in treatment practices played a key role in large CFR variation. Most death occurred within 48 h of admission in Asia, between 4 days and 4 weeks in Africa and in Latin America. CFR was reduced by 41% (odds ratio: 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.46–0.76) when WHO guideline were applied. A 45% reduction in CFR was achieved after excluding human immunodeficiency virus positive cases. Dietary management also differed among WHO and conventional management. Conclusion: Children receiving SAM inpatient care as per WHO guideline have reduced CFR compared to conventional treatment.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 186 p.The World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Malaria Report 2016 reveals that children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa have greater access to effective malaria control. Across the region, a steep increase in diagnostic testing for children and preventive treatment for pregnant women has been reported over the last five years. Among all populations at risk of malaria, the use of insecticide-treated nets has expanded rapidly. But in many countries in the region, substantial gaps in programme coverage remain. Funding shortfalls and fragile health systems are undermining overall progress, jeopardizing the attainment of global targets.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2014 Oct. 40 p.In December 2013, the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board called on UNAIDS to support country- and region-led efforts to establish new targets for HIV treatment scale-up beyond 2015. In response, stakeholder consultations on new targets have been held in all regions of the world. At the global level, stakeholders assembled in a variety of thematic consultations focused on civil society, laboratory medicine, paediatric HIV treatment, adolescents and other key issues. The 90-90-90 UNAIDS target seeks to: 1) By 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status; 2) By 2020, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy; and 3) By 2020, 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression. Key points: 1) Governments, health experts and civil society must take advantage of the next five-year window to meet the 90-90-90 target to tackle AIDS; 2) Early treatment can reduce infection rates by 90 %; 3) A paradigm shift in HIV/AIDS treatment has seen average drug prices fall from an average of US$15 000 to US$ 80; and 4) Health systems will improve as a result of investment in HIV/AIDS treatment; financing from the international community is indispensable.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2016.  p. (UNAIDS/JC2842/E)This document gives an update on progress in the Fast-Track Strategy, adopted by the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board in October 2015. This strategy sets HIV service coverage targets that must be achieved by 2020 to build sufficient momentum to overcome one of history's greatest public health threats by 2030. For example: Providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to an additional 12 million people living with HIV in 2020. This will require reaching key populations with a comprehensive package of HIV services. Increasing investment in HIV programs from an estimated USD$19.2 billion in 2014 to USD$26.2 billion by 2020. After 2020, the vast majority of people living with HIV will have been diagnosed. Because of this and other factors, the resources needed for HIV will then steadily decrease to USD$22.3 billion in 2030. Increasing investment in outreach to key populations in low- and middle-income countries for HIV prevention and linkage to HIV testing and treatment. This investment should grow to about 7.2 percent of total investment by 2020, and the estimated resources needed for community-based delivery of ART percent should grow to about 3.8 percent of total investment. The report also states that international assistance should continue to focus on low-income countries, which are less able to fund their HIV response.
The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents' Health 2016-2030. Survive, Thrive, Transform.
[New York, New York], Every Woman Every Child, 2015.  p.The ambition of the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health is to end preventable deaths among all women, children and adolescents, to greatly improve their health and well-being and to bring about the transformative change needed to shape a more prosperous and sustainable future. This updated Global Strategy was developed by a wide range of national, regional and global stakeholders under the umbrella of the Every Woman Every Child movement, with strong engagement from WHO and builds upon the 2010-2015 Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. Launched by the UN Secretary-General on 26 September in New York, this updated Global Strategy, spanning the 15 years of the SDGs, provides guidance to accelerate momentum for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. It should achieve nothing less than a transformation in health and sustainable development by 2030 for all women, children and adolescents, everywhere.
Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. Disease control priorities. Third edition. Volume 2.
Washington, D.C., World Bank Group, 2016.  p.The Russian Federation's population has been declining since 1992, but recently the decline appears to be over. Although fertility has risen since the 2007 introduction of the family policy package, which focused on stimulating second and higher-order births, total fertility rates still remain significantly below replacement rate. Unlike some Western European countries, low overall fertility in Russia can be explained predominantly by a high prevalence of one-child families, despite the two-child ideal family size reported by the majority of Russians. This paper examines the correlates of Russian first-time mothers' desire and decision to have a second child. Using the 2004–12 waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, the study focuses on the motherhood-career trade-off as a potential obstacle to higher fertility in Russia. The preliminary results indicate that among Russian first-time mothers, being in stable employment is positively associated with the likelihood of having a second child. Moreover, the desire to have a second child is positively associated with the first child attending formal childcare, which suggests that the availability, affordability, and quality of such childcare can be important for promoting fertility. These results are broadly consistent with previous studies in other European countries that indicate that the ability of mothers to combine work and family has important implications for fertility, and that pro-natalist policies focusing on childcare accessibility can offer the greatest payoffs. In addition to these factors, better housing conditions, being married, having an older child, and having a first-born boy are also positively associated with having a second child.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p.World Health Statistics 2015 contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. WHO presents World Health Statistics 2015 as an integral part of its ongoing efforts to provide enhanced access to comparable high-quality statistics on core measures of population health and national health systems.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2014 Jul.  p. (UNAIDS / JC2656)How do we close the gap between the people moving forward and the people being left behind? This was the question we set out to answer in the UNAIDS Gap report. Similar to the Global report, the goal of the Gap report is to provide the best possible data, but, in addition, to give information and analysis on the people being left behind. A new report by UNAIDS shows that 19 million of the 35 million people living with HIV globally do not know their HIV-positive status. The UNAIDS Gap report shows that as people find out their HIV-positive status they will seek life-saving treatment. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 90% of people who tested positive for HIV went on to access antiretroviral therapy (ART). Research shows that in sub-Saharan Africa, 76% of people on ART have achieved viral suppression, whereby they are unlikely to transmit the virus to their sexual partners. New data analysis demonstrates that for every 10% increase in treatment coverage there is a 1% decline in the percentage of new infections among people living with HIV. The report highlights that efforts to increase access to ART are working. In 2013, an additional 2.3 million people gained access to the life-saving medicines. This brings the global number of people accessing ART to nearly 13 million by the end of 2013. Based on past scale-up, UNAIDS projects that as of July 2014 as many as 13 950 296 people were accessing ART. By ending the epidemic by 2030, the world would avert 18 million new HIV infections and 11.2 million AIDS-related deaths between 2013 and 2030.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012 Apr.  p.Adolescents experience intense physical, psychological, emotional and economic changes as they make the transition from childhood to adulthood. This edition of Progress for Children sets out who adolescents are, where they live, what they do, what their problems are and how their needs are -- or are not -- being met. Understanding adolescents in all their diversity is fundamental to improving their lives.
Monitoring of population programmes, focusing on adolescents and youth. Report of the Secretary-General.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2012 Feb 8.  p. (E/CN.9/2012/5)In accordance with decision 2010/101, by which the Commission on Population and Development adopted “Adolescents and youth” as the theme for its forty-fifth session, the present report provides an overview of development issues related to young people’s sexual and reproductive health, with particular emphasis on the needs of girls and young women. The report reviews actions by Governments, non-governmental organizations and the United Nations Population Fund and its partners that create a supportive environment for young people as they make the transition to adulthood; invest in young people; promote their rights and gender equality; provide access to sexual and reproductive health information and services; encourage their education and social integration; ensure protective measures and safe spaces for the most vulnerable among them, including those in humanitarian situations; and support an enabling policy and legal framework for their participation in policymaking. The report concludes by drawing attention to further actions required to promote and secure young people’s sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as a development priority to meet internationally agreed development goals and contribute to countries’ broad development aims.
Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, April 2013 - conclusions and recommendations.
Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 2013 May 17; 88(20):201-6.Add to my documents.
A Clinical Prediction Score in Addition to WHO Criteria for Anti-Retroviral Treatment Failure in Resource-Limited Settings - Experience from Lesotho.
PLoS ONE. 2012 Oct 31; 7(10):e47937.Objective: To assess the positive predictive value (PPV) of a clinical score for viral failure among patients fulfilling the WHO-criteria for anti-retroviral treatment (ART) failure in rural Lesotho. Methods: Patients fulfilling clinical and/or immunological WHO failure-criteria were enrolled. The score includes the following predictors: Prior ART exposure (1 point), CD4-count below baseline (1), 25% and 50% drop from peak CD4-count (1 and 2), hemoglobin drop=1 g/dL (1), CD4 count<100/µl after 12 months (1), new onset papular pruritic eruption (1), and adherence<95% (3). A nurse assessed the score the day blood was drawn for viral load (VL). Reported confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Wilsons method. Results: Among 1'131 patients on ART=6 months, 134 (11.8%) had immunological and/or clinical failure, 104 (78%) had blood drawn (13 died, 10 lost to follow-up, 7 did not show up). From 92 (88%) a result could be obtained (2 samples hemolysed, 10 lost). Out of these 92 patients 47 (51%) had viral failure (=5000 copies), 27 (29%) viral suppression (<40) and 18 (20%) intermediate viremia (40-4999). Overall, 20 (22%) had a score=5. A score=5 had a PPV of 100% to detect a VL>40 copies (95%CI: 84-100), and of 90% to detect a VL=5000 copies (70-97). Within the score, adherence<95%, CD4-count<100/Âµl and papular pruritic eruption were the strongest single predictors. Among 47 patients failing, 8 (17%) died before or within 4 weeks after being switched. Overall mortality was 4 (20%) among those with score=5 and 4 (5%) if score<5 (OR 4.3; 95%CI: 0.96-18.84, p = 0.057). Conclusion: A score=5 among patients fulfilling WHO-criteria had a PPV of 100% for a detectable VL and 90% for viral failure. In settings without regular access to VL-testing, this PPV may be considered high enough to switch this patient-group to second-line treatment without confirmatory VL-test.
Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 2012.  p.With over 730 million inhabitants in 46 countries, the African Region accounts for about one seventh of the world’s population. This statistical atlas provides the health status and trends in the countries of the African Region, the various components of their health systems, coverage and access levels for specific programmes and services, and the broader determinants of health in the Region, and the progress made on reaching the Millennium Development Goals. Each indicator is described, as appropriate, in terms of place (WHO regions and countries in the African Region), person (age and sex) and time (various years) using a bar graph. The aim is to give a comprehensive overview of the health situation in the African Region and its 46 Member States. The main source for the data is WHO-AFRO’s integrated database, based on the World Health Statistics 2012. Other UN agency databases have been used when necessary. All the data and figures in this atlas can be accessed through the African Health Observatory..
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012.  p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. This year, it also includes highlight summaries on the topics of noncommunicable diseases, universal health coverage and civil registration coverage.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011.  p.A new report by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS (UNAIDS), released on 21 November, shows that 2011 was a game changing year for the AIDS response with unprecedented progress in science, political leadership and results. The report also shows that new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths have fallen to the lowest levels since the peak of the epidemic.
Global HIV / AIDS response. Epidemic update and health sector progress towards Universal Access. Progress report 2011.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011.  p.The Progress report 2011: Global HIV / AIDS response reviews progress made until the end of 2010 in scaling up access to health sector interventions for HIV prevention, treatment, care and support in low– and middle-income countries. It is the fifth in a series of annual progress reports published since 2006 by WHO, UNICEF and UNAIDS, in collaboration with national and international partners, to monitor key components of the health sector response to the HIV epidemic. The key findings of the report: update on the HIV epidemic; selected health sector interventions for HIV prevention; knowledge of HIV status, scaling up treatment and care for people living with HIV; scaling up services for key populations at higher risk of HIV infection; scaling up HIV services for women and children; towards elimination of mother to child transmission and improving maternal and child health in the context of HIV.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2011 Nov 30.  p.Derived from the Report on Global HIV / AIDS Response, this fact sheet presents data on new HIV infections, AIDS-related deaths, and HIV prevalence. Information on HIV treatment, care, and support, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevention in the health sector, knowledge of HIV status, and services for key populations is also included. The fact sheet concludes with a section on Beyond 2011: Treatment gains amid funding uncertainties.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2010.  p. (UNAIDS/10.11E ; JC1958E)The 2010 edition of the UNAIDS Report on the global AIDS epidemic includes new country by country scorecards on key issues facing the AIDS response. Based on the latest data from 182 countries, this global reference book provides comprehensive analysis on the AIDS epidemic and response. For the first time the report includes trend data on incidence from more than 60 countries.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2011.  p.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight targeted development aims designed to free humanity from extreme poverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease by 2015. Together, they form a blueprint for development agreed upon by all the world's countries and all the world's leading development institutions. Reliable, timely and internationally comparable data on the MDG progress indicators are crucial for holding the international community to account, encouraging public support and funding for development, allocating aid effectively, and comparing progress among regions and across countries. This report draws on data from numerous international agencies and national governments to present an accounting to date of how far the world has come in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It outlines the significant progress made by some countries towards the MDGs, but also demonstrates that efforts to reach the MDGs by 2015 still need to be intensified. They must address disparities in progress between urban and rural areas, and increase efforts to target the world's hardest to reach populations, namely the extremely poor and those disadvantaged due to their sex, age, ethnicity or disability.