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  1. 1

    Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS: core indicators. United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV / AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 Aug. [2] p.

    Global commitment and action: 1. Amount of funds spent by international donors on HIV/ AIDS in developing countries and countries in transition; 2. Amount of public funds available for research and development of vaccines and microbicides; 3. Percentage of transnational companies that are present in developing countries and that have HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes; 4. Percentage of international organizations that have HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes; 5. Assessment of HIV/AIDS advocacy efforts. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Monitoring and evaluation of the 100% Condom Use Programme in entertainment establishments, 2002.

    Chen XS

    Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2002. [61] p.

    A 100% condom use programme (100% CUP), targeting female sex workers in entertainment establishments, is important in prevention and control of STIs, including HIV. Monitoring and evaluation to measure the progress of the programme is one of its essential components, and requires appropriate indicators. An indicator is a way in which to quantify or measure the magnitude of progress toward something one is trying to achieve in a programme, whether it is a process, an outcome or an impact. Indicators are just that - they simply give an indication of magnitude or direction of change over time. They cannot tell managers much about why the changes have or have not taken place. While a single indicator cannot measure everything, knowing the magnitude and direction of change in achieving a programme objective is critical information for a manager. A good indicator for monitoring and evaluation needs to be: relevant to the programme; feasible to collect and analyse; easy to interpret; and able to measure change over time. Identifying an indicator to be followed in a 100% CUP also demands attention to how that indicator will be defined, the source of the information needed for it, and the timeframe for its collection and analysis. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. Guidelines for a public health approach. Executive summary.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of HIV / AIDS

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of HIV / AIDS, 2002 Apr. 31 p.

    Currently, fewer than five per cent of those who require ARV treatment can access these medicines in resource limited settings. WHO believes that at least three million people needing care should be able to get medicines by 2005—a more than ten-fold increase. These guidelines are intended to support and facilitate the proper management and scale-up of ART in the years to come by proposing a public health approach to achieve these goals. The key tenets of this approach are: 1) Scaling up of antiretroviral treatment programmes to meet the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings; 2) Standardization and simplification of ARV regimens to support the efficient implementation of treatment programmes; 3) Ensuring that ARV treatment programmes are based on the best scientific evidence, in order to avoid the use of substandard treatment protocols which compromise the treatment outcome of individual clients and create the potential for emergence of drug resistant virus. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. Guidelines for a public health approach.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of HIV / AIDS

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of HIV / AIDS, 2002. 163 p.

    These guidelines are part of the World Health Organization’s commitment to the global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy. Their development involved international consultative meetings throughout 2001, in which more than 200 clinicians, scientists, government representatives, representatives of civil society and people living with HIV/AIDS from more than 60 countries participated. The recommendations included in this document are largely based on a review of evidence and reflect the best current practices. Where the body of evidence was not conclusive, expert consensus was used as a basis for recommendations. We hope that this guidance will help Member countries as they work towards meeting the global target of having three million people on antiretroviral therapy by 2005. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Reducing HIV prevalence among young people: a review of the UNGASS prevalence goal and how it should be monitored.

    Pujades Rodríguez M; Hayes R

    London, England, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2002 Oct. iii, 67 p.

    The present review discusses the limitations of HIV prevalence estimates when used to track changes in the HIV epidemic in young people. In particular, it highlights important factors that need to be considered in interpreting prevalence data obtained from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance. The document suggests that, despite substantial efforts made in recent years to improve the quality and representativeness of sentinel surveillance systems and to develop adjustment methods that can be used to obtain more accurate estimates of HIV prevalence in the population, current estimates may not accurately reflect trends of infection in young people. Behavioural changes, such as delay in sexual debut and changes in patterns of contraceptive use, are shown to be important factors that need to be accounted for. In particular, increases in condom use among young people may affect observed trends of HIV infection from ANC surveillance in either direction, depending on the sector of the population that is more likely to use them (e.g. high or low risk groups). Furthermore, the combined effect of the discussed factors is difficult to predict and will be determined by the characteristics of the site and the stage of the HIV epidemic. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Initiating second generation HIV surveillance systems: practical guidelines.

    Garcia Calleja JM; Pervilhac C

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS], 2002 Aug. 24 p. (UNAIDS/02.45E; WHO/HIV/2002.17)

    The purpose of the guidelines is to assist National AIDS Programmes (NAPs) and Ministries of Health in implementing second generation HIV surveillance systems through a logical and standardized process. More specifically, the guidelines are primarily addressed to programme managers, epidemiologists, social scientists and other experts working in or with national programmes on surveillance issues. The practical steps and recommendations place particular emphasis on the initial steps involved in the implementation of second generation surveillance systems. They include the following: assessment, consensus, plan and protocol development, implementation and, finally, monitoring and evaluation. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Child and adolescent health and development progress report, 2000-2001.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2002. [121] p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/02.19)

    The Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) continues to strengthen its leadership position as the technical expert in child and adolescent health and development issues. The Department encourages efforts to reduce illness and death and promote growth among newborns, infants, children and adolescents, and furthermore supports children and adolescents to develop to their full potential and to participate meaningfully in society. To address the multitude of child and adolescent concerns the Department is subdivided into four teams: Neonatal and Infant Health and Development (HNI), Child Health and Development (CHD), Adolescent Health and Development (ADH), and Technical Support (TST). This report is structured according to activities for each of the age groupings. Whether to reduce deaths among newborns or respond to adolescent development problems, the work of CAH is guided by a well-defined cycle of research; development tools, standards and guidelines adapted to local country needs; support to the introduction of tools in different countries, followed by monitoring and evaluation of the impact of interventions. This approach ensures that countries are assisted in their efforts to implement the strategies identified by prior research, and that implementation experiences stimulate and define research and development priorities. The Department’s work is also anchored in a public health perspective, a life course approach and guided by principles related to equity and child rights. One of the Department’s major goals is to build regional and country capacity for implementing effective interventions. The Department backs joint technical work with Regional and Country Offices and supports WHO staff working as medical officers, associate professional officers and national officers. CAH also works closely with country authorities and a wide range of partners to provide broader support and technical expertise. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Field application of PCR-based assays for monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Africa.

    Ramzy RM

    Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2002; 96 Suppl 2:S55-S59.

    Approximately 50 million people in Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa have bancroftian filariasis and together they represent about a third of all cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) world-wide. Currently, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, which was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998, is largely based on repeated annual cycles of mass drug administration (MDA) to endemic populations. Also, some countries, including Egypt, are taking steps to improve LF vector-control interventions, to break the transmission cycle more effectively than is achievable with MDA alone. New tools and strategies for monitoring and evaluating elimination campaigns are needed. The last 20 years have witnessed dramatic advances in the diagnosis of LF for epidemiological purposes. The recent introduction and development of molecular technologies have moved parasite-detection systems from traditional methods (that are labour-intensive, tedious and often impractical ) to improved PCR-based assays that have considerable potential for field use. The present article highlights the strengths and limitations of the PCR-based assays when used to detect filarial infections in mosquitoes ( particularly for the xenomonitoring of elimination campaigns). (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Report of informal meeting to review and develop indicators for complementary feeding, 3-5 December 2002, Washington, D.C.

    Martin L; World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development; World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development; World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Americas. Food and Nutrition Program

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2002. [25] p.

    An informal meeting—convened by WHO’s Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, and the Regional Office for the Americas—was held 3–5 December 2002 at PAHO headquarters in Washington, DC. The meeting objectives were to: Review precise definitions of recommended complementary feeding; Discuss a proposed set of indicators for assessing complementary feeding; Discuss experiences with assessing indicators for infant and young child feeding; Identify indicators that can be endorsed for field validation immediately; Identify areas where research is needed to validate the indicator; Identify existing data sets and opportunities for research and field validation; Develop a plan of action for next steps. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Helminth control in school-age children. A guide for managers of control programmes.

    Montresor A; Crompton DW; Gyorkos TW; Savioli L

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. viii, 64, [4] p.

    This book is a guide for planners and programme managers in the health and education sectors who are responsible for implementing community-based programmes for control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and schistosome infections in school-age populations. The book describes a common and cost-effective approach whereby periodic parasitological surveys in a sample of the school population are used to select the appropriate control strategy for the whole community. An alternative approach, which relies on individual diagnosis and treatment, has been used with success in the rapidly evolving economies of Japan and the Republic of Korea, but is not discussed here. Key elements of guidelines previously published by WHO—Guidelines for the evaluation of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis at community level and Monitoring helminth control programmes are brought together in this book, with a third component on planning and budgeting. The book is intended to help managers to plan, implement, and monitor worm control programmes using methods based on the best current experience. It covers the following topics: programme design; delivery of drugs to schools and treatment of children; collection of data for programme evaluation; obtaining the needed materials. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Initiative for Vaccine Research. Task Force on Clinical Trials of Dengue Vaccines, 14 November 2002.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Vaccines and Biologicals Department. Initiative for Vaccine Research. Task Force on Clinical Trials of Dengue Vaccines

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002. 12 p. (VAB/IVR/VIR2002.03.1)

    The second meeting of the WHO Task Force on Clinical Trials of Dengue Vaccines was held on 14 November 2002 in Denver, Colorado, USA. The Task Force was established to accelerate the development, evaluation, and introduction of urgently needed dengue vaccine candidates. The main objective of the Task Force is to continue to analyze results on safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of currently available vaccine candidates in clinical trials and to provide scientific advice on the next steps to be taken, giving special attention to vaccine safety. The meeting reviewed the progress in clinical trials of four live attenuated vaccine candidates. The task force recommended specific activities in support of future development and clinical studies and identified the role of WHO in this process. The meeting was co-sponsored by the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Nutrition and crises.

    Marchione T

    In: Nutrition: a foundation for development, compiled by United Nations. Administrative Committee on Coordination [ACC]. Sub-Committee on Nutrition [SCN]. Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Administrative Committee on Coordination [ACC], Sub-Committee on Nutrition [SCN], 2002. 4 p.. (Nutrition: a Foundation for Development, Brief 9)

    In the past 15 years food insecurity, malnutrition, and disinvestments in health systems have contributed to increasing national crises and made countries more vulnerable to systemic shocks. Over this period the world has experienced an alarming increase in costly humanitarian disasters that have tragically affected millions of people each year. Shocks have included violent internal conflicts; natural traumas such as droughts and hurricanes; economic shocks; and the surging HIV/AIDS epidemic. The greatest numbers of affected people have been those uprooted by war and natural disasters, which doubled from 20 million in 1985 to 40 million in 1994 and remained over 35 million in 1999, and those living with HIV/AIDS, which increased from only a few million in the early 1980s to 34 million in 2000. Besides causing terrible suffering and death, these crises have caused many developing countries to suffer serious economic and food production setbacks. Global expenditures for humanitarian crisis interventions have grown while official development investment has stagnated or declined, adding to the drag on development. For instance, from 1985 to 2000 the World Food Programme shifted the balance of its program toward emergency response and away from sustainable development of food security and nutrition. It is now time to invest in nutrition as a tool for crisis prevention, mitigation, and management for three reasons: 1. Good nutrition relieves the social unrest underlying violent conflict; 2. Good nutrition decreases the human vulnerability that transforms systemic shocks into humanitarian disasters; and 3. Good nutrition lowers the death rate and promotes timely return to equitable and durable development in the aftermath of crises. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on construction of core indicators. Revised.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; United Nations. General Assembly

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 Dec. 72 p. (UNAIDS/02.51E)

    The purpose of the current guidelines is to provide countries with technical guidance on the detailed specification of the indicators, on the information required and the basis of their construction, and on their interpretation. These guidelines aim to maximize the validity, internal consistency and comparability across countries and over time of the indicator estimates obtained, and to ensure consistency in the types of data and methods of calculation employed. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Implementing the reproductive health approach.

    Fathalla MF

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.

    The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Education for All: Is the the world on track?


    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2002. 310 p.

    The Report is presented in six parts. Chapter 1 reaffirms why Education for All is of such overriding importance. Chapter 2 updates our understanding of progress towards, and prospects for, achieving the six EFA goals. Chapter 3 examines the international response to the call for EFA National Action Plans, the engagement of civil society in planning, and whether the distinctive challenges of HIV/AIDS, and conflict and emergency are being confronted. Chapter 4 assesses the costs of achieving the EFA goals and the availability of the resources to secure them. Chapter 5 explores whether the international commitments made in Dakar, and subsequently, are being met and, if so, by what means. Finally, Chapter 6 putts some of these threads together as a basis for looking forward and identifying opportunities for sustaining the momentum generated by the World Education Forum. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    U.N. publicly chastises China for inaction on H.I.V. epidemic.

    Rosenthal E

    New York Times on the Web. 2002 Jun 28; [2] p..

    The United Nations today issued a stinging public criticism of China's lackluster efforts to face its rapidly accelerating epidemic of H.I.V. infection and AIDS, saying the country is "on the verge of a catastrophe." In a new report, "H.I.V./AIDS: China's Titanic Peril," the Joint United Nations Program on H.I.V./AIDS criticized Chinese officials on many fronts, from the lack of adequate education programs to the absence of treatment for people infected with H.I.V. "We are now witnessing the unfolding of an H.I.V./AIDS epidemic of proportions beyond belief, an epidemic that calls for an urgent and proper but as yet unanswered quintessential response," the report said, noting that the lack of action meant China could have the largest number of people infected with H.I.V. in the world within a few years. While much of the report circulated as an internal document among United Nations agencies late last year, its very public release today at a large news conference in Beijing signaled a new willingness by the United Nations to press China into action. (excerpt)
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