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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1995; (857):i-vi, 1-91.In 1993, the World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Vector Control for Malaria and other Mosquito-Borne Diseases convened in Geneva to develop well-defined guidelines for implementing the vector control component of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. Goals and objectives of the control strategy, vector control, and the study group as well as those concerning use of the insecticide DDT are addressed in the meeting's published report. A review of the global status and trends in malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases follows. Malaria status and experiences, priorities, and trends in vector control in the various WHO regions are examined. One section reviews objectives of vector control, considerations in planning and implementation, selectivity and sustainability, information systems management, stratification of malarious areas by eco-epidemiological criteria, and priority geographical areas and risk groups. Indoor residual spraying, personal protection measures, larviciding and biological control, and environmental management are also discussed. The next section examines the role of vector control in malaria epidemics and drug-resistant malaria. Another section examines indicators of operational and entomological impact and of impact on disease and integrated use of control methods under the context of monitoring and evaluation of vector control efforts. Entomological parameters and techniques discussed include detection and monitoring of insecticide resistance, bioassays, adult density, resting indices, mosquito age and survival rates, human-vector contact, mosquito infection rates, entomological inoculation rate, and measurement of malaria transmission as well as choice of parameters and design for evaluating interventions. Other topics include the role of entomological services in malaria control, managerial aspects of malaria vector control and entomological services, comprehensive vector-borne disease control, capacity building, role of communities and other sectors in vector control, cost-effectiveness in vector control, research in vector control, and policy issues related to vector control.
In: Evaluation and development: proceedings of the 1994 World Bank conference, edited by Robert Picciotto and Ray C. Rist. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. 54-6. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)This article focuses on the nature of the questions that need to be asked in the evaluation of poverty programs, and on the role of participation in answering them. To answer some of the questions pertinent to the evaluation of poverty reduction projects requires knowing the reasons behind why people are poor. Poverty is caused by political, economic, or social factors, and each of these factors is important. Development takes place within a set of interrelationships that are mutually reinforcing and continually changing, and economic development cannot occur without corresponding changes in the political, institutional, and cultural norms of the countries involved. Hence, poverty programs cannot be evaluated unless the full spectrum of issues that contribute to the success of such programs are understood, and unless specific interventions are evaluated in their wider social and political context. Furthermore, participation, which is the involvement of beneficiaries and stakeholders in development efforts, should begin at the initial stage of the project. Participation at this stage improves the quality of information available for decision-making and strengthens stakeholders' commitment to monitoring and evaluation, while it enhances the sustainability of interventions by leaving behind the capacity, or social learning, needed to address such issues.
Progress towards health for all: third monitoring report. Progres vers la sante pour tous: troisieme rapport de suivi.
WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS QUARTERLY. RAPPORT TRIMESTRIEL DE STATISTIQUES SANITAIRES MONDIALES. 1995; 48(3-4):174-249.In 1977, the World Health Assembly designated the year 2000 as the time by which it should be possible for all citizens of the world to obtain a level of health that would permit them to be socially and economically productive. This document, which assesses implementation of health-for-all strategies during 1991-93, is the third report to monitor progress toward this goal. The report opens with an introduction describing the monitoring process and the data upon which the assessment was based. The second section of the report describes population and socioeconomic trends and considers such issues as patterns in population growth, longterm trends in births and deaths, social change, age structure, migration, urbanization, refugees and displaced persons, and trends in education. The third section discusses trends in the provision of a healthy environment and promotion of healthy life styles. Section 4 summarizes health status data on life expectancy, mortality rates, causes of death, morbidity trends, disability trends, and the nutritional status of children. Implementation of primary health care (PHC)is covered in the next section, which looks at health education and promotion, food supply and proper nutrition, safe water and basic sanitation, maternal and child care, control of locally endemic diseases, immunization, treatment of common diseases, and PHC coverage. The sixth section assesses the development of health systems based on PHC and looks at national health policies, strategies, and legislation; organization and management of health systems based on PHC, intersectoral collaboration, community involvement, health systems research, technology for PHC delivery, international support for health system development, sustainable development initiatives, and emergency preparedness and relief. Section 7 is devoted to health resources in the areas of financial activities, human resources, the physical infrastructure, and logistics and supplies. The concluding section of the report summarizes the status of 1) the major determinants of health, 2) the implementation of PHC and the development of health systems, and 3) the distribution of health resources. The next in-depth analysis of progress toward health-for-all is scheduled to begin in 1997.
In: The progress of nations 1995, compiled by UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, 1995. 29.The main activity of the UN International Committee on the Rights of the Child is the examination of each nation's progress in protecting children. The Committee assumes that by ratifying the Convention a government has made a deliberate commitment, and it seeks to help governments live up to their commitments. The Committee meets with government officials and nongovernmental organizations, researches the health, nutrition, and educational status indicators, studies the internal disparities, and monitors national legislation, juvenile justice systems, and institutional arrangements. Many countries still use child labor, have child prostitution, fail to protect children during armed conflicts, and allow discrimination against girls. These conditions can not be tolerated on the basis of culture and tradition; they are violations of the internationally accepted Convention. The rights of the child include civil and political rights and the right to adequate nutrition, primary health care, and a basic education to "the maximum extent of available resources." Juvenile criminals must be separated from adults or be in violation of article 37. Article 2 stipulates the same minimum marriage age for boys and girls. A lower age for girls is discriminatory. The Committee recommends training courses, comparative study of another country's system, or reviews of national establishments, institutions, plans, legal systems, and policies. Working with governments may be slow and bureaucratic, but it effects internal change. Governments cooperate once they understand that the Committee is not interested in criticizing but in helping. The Committee must review policies from 174 countries, and the task is behind schedule. Staffing is inadequate with only 10 elected members working for three months each year. More support is needed for researching and publicizing issues. The Committee prepares reports on each nation's performance against a universal standard. These reports are useful tools in increasing public pressure, monitoring progress, and protesting violations. The first reports have been received and after a five year interval, progress will be assessed. The second reports are coming due soon. Universal implementation of the Convention is still a work in progress and in need of public support.
Experts and NGOs discuss the implementation of the Dakar / Ngor Declaration and the Cairo Programme of Action in Abidjan.
AFRICAN POPULATION NEWSLETTER. 1995 Jan-Jun; (67):1.An Experts and Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) Workshop on the implementation of the Dakar/Ngor Declaration (DND) and the Cairo Programme of Action (ICPD-PA) was organized in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, June 6-9, 1995 by the Joint ECA/OAU/ADB Secretariat with the financial support of the governments of France and the Netherlands, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the African Development Bank. Goals of the Workshop included the following: 1) to evolve a methodology for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the DND and the ICPD-PA; 2) to define the role of the NGOs in the conceptualization, implementation, and monitoring of policies and programs derived from the DND and the ICPD-PA; 3) to create a network of major NGOs working in the area of population and development in the ECA region; and 4) to define IEC strategies to publicize the recommendations in the DND and the ICPD-PA. 26 experts, and representatives of 28 NGOs, several international and research institutions, UNFPA, and IPPF attended the Workshop. Sessions focused on the following themes: 1) Implementation of the Kilimanjaro Programme of Action at the regional level; 2) National experiences in the implementation of the DND and the ICPD-PA; 3) Framework of monitoring and evaluating the implementation of DND and the ICPD-PA; 4) African Population Commission and the implementation of DND and the ICPD-PA; 5) ADB experience in the field of population programs and projects; and 6) the role of NGOs in the implementation of the DND and the ICPD-PA. The recommendations of the Workshop, which will affect ECA member states, will be disseminated in the second half of 1995.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995.  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)A specialist of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) assisted in developing the agenda for and participated in a meeting in Geneva designed to develop plans for introducing VVMs on oral polio vaccine (OPV). Representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), UNICEF, and Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Support Project (BASICS)/ Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) participated in the discussions. The meeting served to update all agencies involved with OPV delivery about VVMs and to identify what actions are needed as well as the parties responsible for the global introduction of vaccines with VVMs. In the summer of 1995, Tanzania will be hosting a pilot project of introducing VVMs with OPVs. Other potential pilot sites include Swaziland and Vietnam. Discussion of pilot activities focused on their purpose, resources available for establishing and monitoring them, and the appropriate number of pilot countries. There were also discussions of a framework for global introduction of VVMs, potential costs associated with VVMs, the effect on vaccine forecasting, and training materials. There were sessions on the organization of the GPV, vaccine supply and quality, the view from Sudan and Indonesia, and human and financial resources. Meeting participants agreed on follow-up actions: continue to work with international OPV supplies, begin to approach national OPV producers to lay the groundwork for use beginning in 1996, limit pilot activities to 4-5 countries (1-2 countries only receiving a packet of information and no technical assistance), develop a package of introduction materials, and develop a briefing sheet on VVMs.
Planning meeting to discuss development of a health facility quality review, WHO / CDR and USAID / BASICS, Geneva, May 15-19, 1995.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. , 9,  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 55 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)In May 1995, representatives of the World Health Organization Division of Diarrheal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control and of the US Agency for International Development's Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival Project (BASICS) met in Geneva to discuss the first phase of the process of developing a methodology for collecting information on the quality of facility services in areas where integrated case management is being used. This monitoring and evaluation instrument is called Health Facility Quality Review: Case Management of Childhood Illness. The discussions revolved around the focus of activities, series of quality review activities, personnel, facilities, health workers observed and interviewed, indicators, pre-assessment for program planning, the process, materials, sampling, guidelines for developing forms, country adaptation, and format. A BASICS staff member has developed a pre-assessment tool for program planning scheduled to be used in Eritrea in June 1995. Content categories of the Health Facility Quality Review forms should include case observation, case examination, caretaker interview, health worker interview, review of records, review of facility space and furnishings, review of availability of facility equipment and supplies, review of drug supplies, review of vaccines available, review of other supplies, drug management, staffing, supervision, clinic organization, and interventions. BASICS will budget and make plans for the field test of the quality review during June-July 1995. It will oversee the pretest of forms probably in October 1995.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. , 10,  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)In March 1995, a BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) Project technical officer participated in a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, about introduction of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs). VVMs constitute color-coded labels that can be affixed to vials of vaccines which, when exposed to heat over time, change irreversibly. In 1994, WHO and UNICEF requested that, starting in January 1996, VVMs be affixed on all UNICEF-purchased vials of oral polio vaccine. Yet, UNICEF does not require vaccine manufacturers to include VVMs in their vaccine labels. USAID has supported much of the development and field testing of VVMs since 1987. Participants discussed status of interactions between UNICEF and vaccine manufacturers, issues and means related to introducing VVMs worldwide, and the prospect for conducting a study or studies on the initial effect of VVMs on vaccine-handling practices. They also heard an update on the pilot introduction of VVMs in some countries. BASICS could contribute to the development of a plan for global VVM introduction, since time constraints and heavy workloads face WHO/GPV leaders. UNICEF and GPV staff suggested that other VVM products from different manufacturers also be sold to avoid a monopoly. Participants considered issues of global introduction and resolution of issues with manufacturers of VVMs and vaccines to be high priority issues. WHO and UNICEF asked BASICS to draft general training materials for staff at the central, provincial, district, and periphery levels, focusing on actions that each level should take as a result of VVM use. They also asked BASICS to develop a quick-reference sheet for policy makers.
POPULI. 1995 Jan; 22(12):4-5.According to speakers from 45 countries, at a UN General Assembly debate (November 17-18), "a major mobilization of resources and effective monitoring of follow-up actions are needed" in order to implement the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Algeria spoke for developing countries in the Group of 77 (G77) and China; commended the Programme's recognition of the key role played by population policies in development and its new approach that centered on people rather than numbers; called for concerted international mobilization to meet ICPD goals for maternal, infant, and child mortality, and access to education; and, since G77 had agreed at the Cairo Conference that developing countries should pay two-thirds of the implementation costs of the Programme, asked industrialized countries to provide the remaining third from new resources, rather than by diversion of existing development aid. It was reported that G77 is preparing a draft resolution which will address distribution of ICPD follow-up responsibilities. Germany spoke for the European Union; commended the shift of focus from demographics and population control to sustainable development, patterns of consumption, women's rights, and reproductive health; and suggested that the World Summit on Social Development and the Fourth World Conference on Women, which will be held in 1995, could carry on the Cairo agenda (a point underscored by Thailand). It was reported that several Western European countries had already pledged substantial increases in population assistance. Indonesia and South Korea addressed increasing South-South cooperation in population and development. Nigeria and the Holy See noted the emphasis on national sovereignty in regard to law, religion, and cultural values. Many called for a global conference on international migration. To ensure a common strategy for ICPD follow-up within the UN system, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has asked UNFPA Executive Director Nafis Sadik to chair an inter-agency task force. All UN agencies and organizations have been asked to review how they will promote implementation of the Programme of Action.