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  1. 1

    Fertility, contraception and population policies.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. iv, 37 p. (ESA/P/WP.182)

    Governments’ views and policies with regard to the use of contraceptives have changed considerably during the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, many developing countries have experienced a transition from high to low fertility with a speed and magnitude that far exceeds the earlier fertility transition in European countries. Government policies on access to contraceptives have played an important role in the shift in reproductive behaviour. Low fertility now prevails in some developing countries, as well as in most developed countries. The use of contraception is currently widespread throughout the world. The highest prevalence rates at present are found in more developed countries and in China. This chapter begins with a global overview of the current situation with regard to Governments’ views and policies on contraception. It then briefly summarizes the five phases in the evolution of population policies, from the founding of the United Nations to the beginning of the 21st century. It examines the various policy recommendations concerning contraception adopted at the three United Nations international population conferences, and it discusses the role of regional population conferences in shaping the policies of developed and developing countries. As part of its work programme, the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the global monitoring of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). To this end, the Population Division maintains a Population Policy Data Bank, which includes information from many sources. Among these sources are official Government responses to the United Nations Population Inquiries; Government and inter-governmental publications, documents and other sources; and non-governmental publications and related materials. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.

    Sierra Leone. National Population Commission

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. [4], 15, [4] p.

    The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
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  3. 3

    [Advances and difficulties of Cairo] Los avances y las dificultades de El Cairo.

    GIRE. 1998 Mar; (16):2-4.

    The 184 governments represented at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo achieved consensus on a Program of Action with goals for the next 20 years. The Conference recognized that population policies could not be separated from the decisions of men and women regarding their human rights to sexuality and reproduction and that healthy economic and social development must consider the balance between population and environmental resources. Women in particular must be given information, sex education, and contraceptive methods to allow them to implement their reproductive choices. The participation of thousands of independently organized women in sessions preparing for the Cairo conference and in the conference itself facilitated the change of emphasis away from imposition of family planning goals and toward a more humanist demography centering on women. An accord at the Cairo conference called for the donor countries to contribute one-third of the resources needed to carry out the Program of Action. A regular flow of funds was observed in 1994 and 1995, but external aid began to decline in 1996. Every effort must be made to ensure that the goals of the Program of Action are met.
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  4. 4

    The cultural context of reproductive health: implications for monitoring the Cairo agenda.

    Obermeyer CM

    International Family Planning Perspectives. 1999 Jan; 25 Suppl:S50-2, S55.

    When the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development adopted a reproductive health approach, it became necessary to develop and adopt new indicators of progress. While former program experience has been used to further this task, less attention has been paid to the underlying conceptual framework or to reconciliation of the goals of 1) developing a universal set of indicators and 2) responding to local conditions. The concept of reproductive health was developed through coalition-building but is nevertheless a cultural construct. Thus, challenges to the development of indicators include 1) defining reproductive health and its scope, 2) translating concepts into languages that have no equivalents, 3) incorporating a gender perspective in settings where even women may seek other goals before seeking empowerment, 4) setting appropriate priorities, and 5) resolving discrepancies between women's perceptions and expressions of needs and biomedical assessments of their health. It is useful, therefore, to consider reproductive health indicators as existing on an continuum with quantifiable measures on one end and new indicators on the other to measure socioeconomic conditions, changes in awareness, satisfaction or well-being, and empowerment. These latter measurements must be flexible enough to respond to specific cultural contexts. The very interdisciplinary nature of the current conceptualization of reproductive health will demand development of multidisciplinary interventions.
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