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  1. 1

    A renewed global partnership for development.

    United Nations. Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2013 Mar. [33] p.

    In its second report, "A renewed global partnership for development," the UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development looks at the possible features for the global partnership for development in the post-2015 era. Building on a review of the current global partnership for development, as crystallized in Millennium Development Goal 8, the report provides recommendations on potential dimensions and contours of a renewed global partnership for development. In addition the report also provides some suggestions for a robust mutual accountability system.
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  2. 2

    Health in the post-2015 development agenda. Report of the Global Thematic Consultation on Health. Draft for public comment.

    Global Thematic Consultation on Health. Task Team

    [Unpublished] 2013 Feb 1. [38] p.

    The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the main themes and messages that have emerged from the consultation and to make recommendations to inform the deliberations of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons and the UN Secretary-General’s report to the General Assembly. Annex 1 captures in more detail the depth and breadth of the analyses and proposals in the more than 100 papers and meeting reports that were submitted to the consultation; all the inputs and a digest summarizing the papers are available from Chapter 2 describes the consultation process, detailing the processes that were used to reach out to different constituencies. Chapters 3-5 explain why health should be at the centre of the post-2015 development agenda. Chapter 3 summarizes the inputs about the successes and shortcomings of the MDGs, many of which were unintended and only became apparent with the benefit of hindsight. Important lessons can be learned from this assessment. Chapter 4 describes the interdependent linkages between health and development. Chapter 5 considers some of the most significant changes that have happened (and in some cases continue to happen at an accelerated pace) since the MDGs were launched in 2000. Understanding how the world, global health and priority health needs have changed and what changes are likely in the next 15 years is critical to defining the health agenda for the coming years in terms of both what needs to be done (the content) and how (the approach). Chapter 6 presents guiding principles for the post-2015 development agenda and the various options for health goals and indicators that were put forward during the consultation. Chapter 7 focuses on the importance of accountability, inclusive partnerships, innovation, and learning. Chapter 8 includes the report’s main recommendations on how to frame the future agenda for health. The contributors to this consultation are looking in the same general direction: all agree that the new development agenda needs strong and visible health goals supported by measurable indicators. The recommendations in this chapter are those that garnered the most support during the consultation. Chapter 9 concludes by suggesting concrete actions that could be taken between now and 2015 by those advocating for health to feature prominently in the next development agenda. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 21 October 2011.

    World Conference on Social Determinants of Health (2011: Rio de Janeiro)

    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, 2011. [7] p.

    The Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health expresses global political commitment for the implementation of a social determinants of health approach to reduce health inequities and to achieve other global priorities. It will help to build momentum within WHO Member States for the development of dedicated national action plans and strategies. On 15 August 2011, the text was circulated to Geneva-based Permanent Missions of Member States. The first meeting of Member States, convened by the Government of Brazil, was held at WHO headquarters on 7 September, 2011. This was followed by a series of informal consultations attended by representatives of Permanent Missions. The text of the declaration was finalized during the conference in Rio de Janeiro on 19-21 October, 2011.
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  4. 4

    Bridging the gap. The role of monitoring and evaluation in evidence-based policy making.

    Segone M

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, 2008 Jan. [220] p. (Evaluation Working Papers Issue No. 12)

    This collection of articles by UNICEF brings together the vision and lessons learned from different stakeholders on the strategic role of monitoring and evaluation in evidence-based policymaking. These stakeholders are policymakers (as users of evidence) and researchers and evaluators (as suppliers of evidence). The use of strong evidence can achieve recognition of a policy issue, inform the design and choice of policy, forecast the future, monitor policy implementation, and evaluate policy impact.
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  5. 5

    Country-led monitoring and evaluation systems. Better evidence, better policies, better development results.

    Segone M

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE/CIS, 2009. [322] p.

    This collection of articles by UNICEF discusses how to improve evidence-based decision making in developing countries through the use of monitoring and evaluation systems. While information on programmatic best practices is available, knowledge bases in developing countries still have significant gaps. This book forges the link between learning about evidence-based policymaking and the contributions that country-led monitoring and evaluation systems can make in supporting good decision making.
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  6. 6

    Unkept promises: what the numbers say about poverty and gender. An international citizen's progress report on poverty eradication and gender equity. Advance Social Watch report 2005.

    Bissio R

    Montevideo, Uruguay, Social Watch, 2005. 114 p. (Social Watch Report)

    Almost five years have passed since the largest gathering ever of heads of State and government made this solemn promise to the peoples of the world: "we will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty."1 Almost ten years have passed since the leaders of the world solemnly committed themselves in Copenhagen "to the goal of eradicating poverty in the world, through decisive national actions and international cooperation, as an ethical, social, political and economic imperative of humankind."2 This is an ambitious agenda. So much so that it was compared by many leaders to the historic task of slavery abolition in the 19th century. Inspired by the Copenhagen Declaration and the complementary Beijing Platform for Action towards gender equity, 3 citizen groups from all over the world came together to form the Social Watch network. Every year since then, Social Watch has published a comprehensive report monitoring the governments' compliance with their international commitments. The findings of the national Social Watch coalitions in over 60 countries and the analysis of the available indicators coincide: the promises have remained largely unmet. Unless substantial changes are put in place soon, the targets set for the year 2015 will not be achieved. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    MICS, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Mar. [2] p.

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a household survey programme developed by UNICEF to assist countries in filling data gaps for monitoring human development in general and the situation of children and women in particular. MICS is capable of producing statistically sound, internationally comparable estimates of social indicators such as the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicators. It is a flexible tool that is reasonably inexpensive and relatively quick to implement. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    The need for a more ambitious target.

    Bazoglu N

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):8.

    At the Millennium Summit world leaders pledged to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020, as proposed in Nelson Mandela’s Cities Without Slums initiative. Since its inception 30 years ago, the human settlements programme has taken significant steps on the conceptualization of slums and security of tenure. Yet the goals of security of tenure and adequate shelter have always remained on the periphery of the international development agenda, despite the Istanbul Summit of 1996. As the first major global instrument of the international human settlements community, the Habitat Agenda is primarily a declaration of good principles. But the broad range of themes it articulates in politically correct language allows any stakeholder to defend any argument. Indeed the Habitat Agenda falls short of providing a focused, results-oriented road map. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Monitoring the slum target: two viewpoints.

    Satterthwaite D; López Moreno E

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):13.

    Finding the right indicators and the best approach to monitoring the myriad problems of urban poverty around the world can be complex or simple. In this debate, David Satterthwaite, Senior Fellow at the London-based International Institute for Environment and Development, and Eduardo López Moreno, Chief of UN-HABITAT’s Global Urban Observatory, discuss some the alternatives. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Are countries working effectively on the Millennium targets?

    Tebbal F

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):6.

    To answer the simple but central question of the title, the Millennium Development Strategy (MDS) prepared by the UN Millennium Project, recommended that, “during 2003- 2004, each country prepares its own Millennium Development Strategy Paper that builds explicitly on the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)”. The strategy suggests that this could be a revised version of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP)) which explicitly and suitably incorporate the MDGs. “Countries need to construct their own coherent strategy for achieving the MDGs, building on the various dimensions of policy,” it says. While many countries have undertaken such analyses in recent years, it would be interesting to find out, five years after the adoption of the Millennium Declaration, whether this work is systematically done. For UNHABITAT the question is: Are countries prepared to meet the target of improving significantly the lives of slum dwellers? To find out, a quick survey was conducted recently through the regional offices and UN-HABITAT Programme Managers (HPMs). (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Local statistics are crucial to localizing the MDGs.

    Mboup G

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):12.

    Not enough is being done to gather street and house-hold-level statistics in slums and other urban pockets of poverty to implement the slum target of the Millennium Declaration. This is because country reports average out the figures they gather from all urban households, both rich and poor, to provide single estimates on poverty, education, health, employment, and the state of human settlements. Thus the plight of the urban poor is underestimated. It is further masked by the practice of simply providing averages between urban and rural areas. For instance, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 20 African countries between 2000-2003 showed that children living in poor urban areas are as exposed to high morbidity and malnutrition as those in rural areas. The Nigeria data showed that malnutrition was higher in slums than in rural areas (38% versus 32%). (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Bringing the goals to city level.

    Mehta D

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):10.

    The Millennium Declaration to which world leaders pledged themselves in 2000 has become the ‘organizing framework’ for many UN and bilateral programmes. This is because it contains a broad range of internationally agreed development goals ranging from poverty reduction, health, and gender equality to education and environmental sustainability. While the challenges and opportunities for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are varied, what is unique about them is the time-bound element and the outcome orientation embodied in the targets. It must be understood that the MDG targets are global targets based on aggregate trends of all countries. Therefore, even if the global targets are achieved, the inequalities between countries and among people may still persist. At the national and local levels, achieving these global targets requires political commitment and ownership, which can be mobilised only if these targets are set in local context. It must therefore be recognised that while the MDGs are global, they can most effectively be achieved through action at local level. Poverty is not only a global issue, but is deeply rooted in local processes that matter most to the poor. For poverty reduction programmes to become effective, it is necessary to achieve the MDGs at local level, set within the context of local reality, aspirations and priorities. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Global goals for local change.

    Bunting J

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):11.

    Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Target 11 (By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slums dwellers) provides an unprecedented opportunity to get the issue of urban poverty onto the international development agenda. Global reporting allows direct comparisons of progress to be made between countries and over time. But there has been criticism that these high level goals and targets lack national and local relevance. The slum estimates produced by UNHABITAT are a global public good. They allow the international community to monitor patterns and trends in the number and condition of slum dwellers. UNHABITAT’s projection that the slum population could double from 924 million in 2001 to 2 billion in 2030 shows how far we are from actually achieving cities without slums. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    When do communities know best? UNICEF's search for relevant social indicators in Zimbabwe.

    Kararach G

    Development in Practice. 2004 Jun; 14(4):569-573.

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are needed by all development interventions in order to document their output and outcomes. Once a set of goals has been established in response to a development ‘problem’, a corresponding set of indicators (i.e. variables or information) will also be identified in order to review progress towards those goals. In Africa, the so-called ‘expert’ evaluators—those who see M&E as their professional calling—have dominated the process of selecting social indicators. Unfortunately, this domination has given rise to sporadic and unreliable social data for M&E purposes facing every agency involved in development work in Africa. Zimbabwe is no exception. This Practical Note tells the story of UNICEF Zimbabwe’s search for relevant and reliable indicators based on solid data. The guiding philosophy in this effort is the belief that local communities themselves are among the many agencies involved in implementing development programmes—in the sense that they always seek ways of tackling whatever problems they face. These communities must therefore be active participants in the process of selecting indicators. The paper will first discuss the difficulty in establishing relevant data and indicators in the context of Zimbabwe, a task which is now an urgent priority given the dual problems of HIV/ AIDS and a declining economy. It is generally believed that these two problems have been responsible for the reversal of social gains made immediately after independence—hence the need to know exactly what is going on. The paper will then highlight recent attempts by UNICEF Zimbabwe—together with its partners—to establish good and reliable information sources so that not only can it monitor and evaluate the various impacts of its programmes but also the social environment of children. In part, the pressure for community-generated indicators has also been driven by the shift in UNICEF’s approach to its work—an approach underpinned by human rights principles. The final part of the paper discusses the challenges that UNICEF and its partners have faced and continue to struggle with. It draws some lessons learned and points to what more could be done to improve the qualities of social indicators. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    [Advances and difficulties of Cairo] Los avances y las dificultades de El Cairo.

    GIRE. 1998 Mar; (16):2-4.

    The 184 governments represented at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo achieved consensus on a Program of Action with goals for the next 20 years. The Conference recognized that population policies could not be separated from the decisions of men and women regarding their human rights to sexuality and reproduction and that healthy economic and social development must consider the balance between population and environmental resources. Women in particular must be given information, sex education, and contraceptive methods to allow them to implement their reproductive choices. The participation of thousands of independently organized women in sessions preparing for the Cairo conference and in the conference itself facilitated the change of emphasis away from imposition of family planning goals and toward a more humanist demography centering on women. An accord at the Cairo conference called for the donor countries to contribute one-third of the resources needed to carry out the Program of Action. A regular flow of funds was observed in 1994 and 1995, but external aid began to decline in 1996. Every effort must be made to ensure that the goals of the Program of Action are met.
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  16. 16

    A comparison of approaches to institutionalizing gender in donor agencies.

    Sherchand B

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Gender in Economic and Social Systems Project [GENESYS], 1994 Oct. [2], 48 p. (GENESYS Special Study No. 17; USAID Contract No. PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00)

    In order to reveal essential lessons learned about the process undertaken by major bilateral and multilateral donor agencies to institutionalize gender awareness in their organizational structure and programs and to define the scope of the remaining work in this area, this paper compares strategies of major agencies and assesses the degree to which these strategies have allowed the agencies to meet stated objectives. The first main section of the paper provides background information on the following issues: 1) the importance of recognizing women's dual productive and reproductive roles and of the concept of mainstreaming in the development of policies and plans of action; 2) the key structures and processes that enhance capacity for institutionalizing gender, including a commitment to raising awareness, the presence of a Women in Development (WID) office and/or staff, and WID training and research; 3) the process of incorporating gender issues into country programs and project cycles; 4) involving women in all stages of development programming; and 5) strategies for the future. The second section of the paper analyzes the institutionalization of gender issues into the development process funded by the bilateral donors (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US). Each analysis includes a look at the content and scope of the country's policy and plan of action, at organizational commitment to raising awareness, at efforts to build a knowledge base, at how gender issues are incorporated into programs and project cycles, and at efforts to bring women into the process. The same framework is applied to the consideration of multilateral donors (the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and the UN Development Programme) contained in the final section of the paper.
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