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Optimal feeding of low-birthweight infants in low- and middle-income countries: highlights from the World Health Organization 2011 guidelines.
[Washington, D.C.], MCSP, 2017 Jun. 6 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This brief presents the updated WHO Guidelines on Optimal Feeding of Low Birth-Weight Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, and highlights changes and best practices for optimal feeding of LBW infants. It is intended to assist policymakers, program managers, educators, and health care providers involved in caring for LBW infants to put the recommendations into action. It is hoped that such actions will contribute to improving the quality of care for LBW infants, thereby reducing LBW mortality and improving health outcomes for this group.
Programme reporting standards for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 32 p.Information about design, context, implementation, monitoring and evaluation is central to understanding the processes and impacts of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH) programmes, in support of effective replication and scale-up of these efforts. Existing reporting guidelines do not demand sufficient detail in the reporting of contextual and implementation issues. We have, therefore, developed programme reporting standards (PRS) to provide guidance for complete and accurate reporting on the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of SRMNCAH programmes. The PRS can be used by SRMNCAH programme implementers and researchers. The PRS can be used prospectively to guide the reporting of a programme throughout its life cycle, or retrospectively to describe what was done, when, where, how and by whom. The PRS is intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies. The PRS is intended for programme managers and other staff or practitioners who have designed, implemented and/or evaluated SRMNCAH programmes. It can be used by governmental and nongovernmental organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as by the private sector. The PRS is also intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies
Design and initial implementation of the WHO FP umbrella project - to strengthen contraceptive services in the sub Saharan Africa.
Reproductive Health. 2017 Jun 15; 14(1):1-6.BACKGROUND: Strengthening contraceptive services in sub Saharan Africa is critical to achieve the FP 2020 goal of enabling 120 million more women and girls to access and use contraceptives by 2020 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets of universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services including family planning by 2030. METHOD: The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners have designed a multifaceted project to strengthen health systems to reduce the unmet need of contraceptive and family planning services in sub Saharan Africa. The plan leverages global, regional and national partnerships to facilitate and increase the use of evidence based WHO guidelines with a specific focus on postpartum family planning. The four key approaches undertaken are i) making WHO Guidelines adaptable & appropriate for country use ii) building capacity of WHO regional/country staff iii) providing technical support to countries and iv) strengthening partnerships for introduction and implementation of WHO guidelines. This paper describes the project design and elaborates the multifaceted approaches required in initial implementation to strengthen contraceptive services. CONCLUSION: The initial results from this project reflect that simultaneous application these approaches may strengthen contraceptive services in Sub Saharan Africa and ensure sustainability of the efforts. The lessons learned may be used to scale up and expand services in other countries.
[Unpublished] 2016 Dec 15. 138 p.This is the first draft of the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!): Implementation guidance . This consultation aims to gather input from a wide range of stakeholders to inform the development of the guidance. Key messages include: 1. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) make up one-sixth of the world’s population and are extremely diverse, but share key developmental experiences, such as rapid physical growth, hormonal changes, sexual development, new and complex emotions, and an increase in intellectual capacities. 2. Adolescent health is affected by positive physical, neurological, and psychosocial development, as well as a diverse array of possible burdens, including unintentional injury, interpersonal violence, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) concerns, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and mental health issues. 3. In addition, numerous important risk factors for health problems start or are consolidated during adolescence and may continue over the life course, such as tobacco use, inadequate nutrition, physical inactivity, and alcohol and drug use. 4. There are strong demographic, public health, economic, and human rights reasons to invest in the health and the development of adolescents. For example, investing in adolescent health will benefit adolescents now, adolescents in their future lives, and also the next generation. 5. Three critical, overarching concepts in adolescent health programming are universal health coverage, quality of care, and positive development. 6. The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) takes a life-course approach that aims for the highest attainable standards of health and wellbeing -- physical, mental, and social -- at every age. It identifies 27 evidence-based adolescent health interventions. 7. The Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) implementation guidance document has been developed to support the Global Strategy and to provide countries with a basis for developing a coherent national plan for the health of adolescents. Specifically: Section 2 reviews adolescent positive development and major disease burdens; Section 3 describes the 27 Global Strategy adolescent health interventions in detail; Section 4 outlines how a country can prioritize health interventions for its particular adolescent population; Section 5 describes important aspects of successful national adolescent health programming; and Section 6 reviews adolescent health monitoring, evaluation, and research guidelines and priorities.
Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: National implementation of the international code. Status report 2016.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016.  p.This report provides updated information on the status of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions (“the Code”) in and by countries. It presents the legal status of the Code, including -- where such information is available -- to what extent Code provisions have been incorporated in national legal measures. The report also provides information on the efforts made by countries to monitor and enforce the Code through the establishment of formal mechanisms. Its findings and subsequent recommendations aim to improve the understanding of how countries are implementing the Code, what challenges they face in doing so, and where the focus must be on further efforts to assist them in more effective Code implementation.
Principles and considerations for adding a vaccine to a national immunization programme: From decision to implementation and monitoring.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 2014.  p.This essential resource document reviews the principles and issues to be considered when making decisions about, planning, and implementing the introduction of a vaccine into a national immunization programme. Importantly, the document highlights ways to use the opportunity provided by the vaccine introduction to strengthen immunization and health systems. The comprehensive guidance also describes the latest references and tools related to vaccine decision-making, economic analyses, cold chain, integrated disease control and health promotion, vaccine safety, communications, monitoring, and more, and provides key URL links to many of these resources.
Larval source management: a supplementary measure for malaria vector control. An operational manual.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.Larval source management (LSM) refers to the targeted management of mosquito breeding sites, with the objective to reduce the number of mosquito larvae and pupae. When appropriately used, LSM can contribute to reducing the numbers of both indoor and out-door biting mosquitoes, and -- in malaria elimination phase -- it can be a useful addition to programme tools to reduce the mosquito population in remaining malaria ‘hotspots’. This operational manual has been designed primarily for National Malaria Control Programmes as well as field personnel. It will also be of practical use to specialists working on public health vector control, and malaria programme specialists working with bilateral donors, funders and implementation partners. It has been written by senior public health experts of the malaria vector control community under the guidance of the WHO Global Malaria Programme. The manual’s three main chapters provide guidance on: the selection of larval control interventions, the planning and management of larval control programmes, and detailed guidance on conducting these programmes. The manual also contains a list of WHOPES-recommended formulations, standard operating procedures for larviciding, as well as a number of country case studies.
Country implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: status report 2011.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.Globally, breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 220 000 deaths among children under five each year. WHO recommends that all infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, but actual practice is low (38%). The implementation and enforcement of International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant Health Assembly Resolutions (the Code) are critical for an environment that supports proper infant and young child feeding and for the attainment of Millennium Development Goal 4 (reduce child mortality). This report summarizes the progress countries have made in implementing the Code. It is based on data received from WHO Member States between 2008 and 2010 and on information for 2011 from UNICEF. WHO recognizes ongoing progress being made in various countries since 2011, in terms of passing laws, strengthening existing laws or improving monitoring mechanisms. Updates will be included on an ongoing basis in the WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA). In addition, WHO will publish status reports periodically.
Follow-up actions to recommendations of the high-level commissions convened to advance women’s and children’s health. Report by the Secretariat.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 11.  p. (A66/14)This report has been prepared in response to resolution WHA65.7, which requested an annual report to the Health Assembly, through the Executive Board, on progress made in the follow-up of the recommendations of the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health. At the request of a Member State, the report also provides details of the Secretariat’s work on the recommendations and implementation plan of the United Nations Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 11.  p. (A66/15)Following the close attention given by WHO’s governing bodies to the important role played by social determinants of health in global health, especially in relation to the WHO reform process and the Organization’s future activities, further review and consultation have taken place. Tackling social determinants of health is recognized as being both a fundamental approach to the work of the Organization and a priority area of work in itself in the draft twelfth WHO general programme of work 2014–2019, which has been discussed by the regional committees before its further consideration by Executive Board and the Health Assembly.
Handbook for supporting the development of health system guidance. Supporting informed judgements for health system policies.
Basel, Switzerland, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 2011 Jul.  p.This handbook, commissioned by the WHO, describes the processes, approaches and outputs for developing health system guidance and is compliant with the existing ‘WHO handbook for guideline development’ (WHO Guidelines Review Committee (GRC)) and is the equivalent of the handbook to support the development of clinical guidelines for health systems guidance. It is based on a preliminary work that established the rationale and framework for health systems guidance and it is inspired by global trends encouraging to bridge the gap between research and policy and practice through knowledge translation. The handbook has been produced by a core team supported by the GRC staff, supported by a Task Force specifically set up for this project. The handbook deals with the process of developing full guidance, rather than the processes to adopt, adapt or endorse guidance developed by third parties. (Excerpt)
Assessing implementation mechanisms for an international agreement on research and development for health products.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012; 90:854-863.The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are currently debating the substance and form of an international agreement to improve the financing and coordination of research and development (R&D) for health products that meet the needs of developing countries. In addition to considering the content of any possible legal or political agreement, Member States may find it helpful to reflect on the full range of implementation mechanisms available to bring any agreement into effect. These include mechanisms for states to make commitments, administer activities, manage financial contributions, make subsequent decisions, monitor each other’s performance and promote compliance. States can make binding or non-binding commitments through conventions, contracts, declarations or institutional reforms. States can administer activities to implement their agreements through international organizations, sub-agencies, joint ventures or self-organizing processes. Finances can be managed through specialized multilateral funds, financial institutions, membership organizations or coordinated self-management. Decisions can be made through unanimity, consensus, equal voting, modified voting or delegation. Oversight can be provided by peer review, expert review, self-reports or civil society. Together, states should select their preferred options across categories of implementation mechanisms, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that are both sustainable and acceptable to those involved. In making these decisions, WHO’s Member States can benefit from years of experience with these different mechanisms in health and its related sectors.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2012.  p.The Handbook for National Action Plans on Violence against Women brings together current knowledge on effective policy for the prevention of, and response to, violence against women, and concretely demonstrates how States have developed and implemented such policy in their own contexts. Although not a model plan itself , this publication sets out guidelines to help policy makers and advocates formulate effective plans. It is based on good practices in States’ plans and the advice of experts from different countries and regions. It first outlines the international and regional legal and policy framework which mandates States to adopt and implement National Action Plans to address violence against women. It then presents a model framework for National Action Plans on violence against women, which sets out recommendations, accompanied by explanatory commentaries and good practice examples.
Progress of implementation of the World Health Organization strategy for HIV drug resistance control in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Revista Panamericana De Salud Publica. 2011 Dec; 30(6):657-62.By the end of 2010, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) achieved 63% antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. Measures to control HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at the country level are recommended to maximize the efficacy and sustainability of ART programs. Since 2006, the Pan American Health Organization has supported implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for HIVDR prevention and assessment through regional capacity-building activities and direct technical cooperation in 30 LAC countries. By 2010, 85 sites in 19 countries reported early warning indicators, providing information about the extent of potential drivers of drug resistance at the ART site. In 2009, 41.9% of sites did not achieve the WHO target of 100% appropriate first-line prescriptions; 6.3% still experienced high rates (> 20%) of loss to follow-up, and 16.2% had low retention of patients (< 70%) on first-line prescriptions in the first year of treatment. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred at 22.7% of sites. Haiti, Guyana, and the Mesoamerican region are planning and implementing WHO HIVDR monitoring surveys or threshold surveys. New HIVDR surveillance tools for concentrated epidemics would promote further scale-up. Extending the WHO HIVDR lab network in Latin America is key to strengthening regional lab capacity to support quality assured HIVDR surveillance. The WHO HIVDR control strategy is feasible and can be rolled out in LAC. Integrating HIVDR activities in national HIV care and treatment plans is key to ensuring the sustainability of this strategy.
Paris, France, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2012. 158 p.The education sector has a significant role to play in the response to HIV and AIDS. The sector can help to prevent the spread of HIV through education, and, in countries that are highly affected by HIV, by taking steps to protect itself from the effects of the epidemic. It can also make a significant contribution by supporting health improvement more generally and by helping to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people in particular.This framework is designed to help those working in the education sector at a national level to understand the need for a robust response to HIV and AIDS in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The document also highlights the education sector’s role in contributing to universal access to HIV and AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support.
Combination HIV prevention: Tailoring and coordinating biomedical, behavioural and structural strategies to reduce new HIV infections. A UNAIDS discussion paper.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2010 Sep.  p. (UNAIDS Discussion Paper No. 10; UNAIDS - JC2007)This discussion paper summarizes the approach to HIV prevention programming known as “combination prevention” that UNAIDS recommends to achieve the greatest and most lasting impact on reducing HIV incidence and on improving the well-being of affected communities around the world.
Report on country experience: A multi-sectoral response to combat polio outbreak in Namibia. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/19/2011; Draft Background Paper 19)Namibia witnessed an outbreak of Wild Polio Type 1 virus in 2006. A total of 323 suspected cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis were reported, of which 19 were confirmed as Wild Polio Virus Type 1. The outbreak affected mostly the older population and thirty-two of the suspected cases died. The country mounted an immediate response that enabled the whole population to be vaccinated against polio virus. The outbreak of the epidemic witnessed an unprecedented response with the country coming together in the spirit of one Nation facing a common enemy. The reported deaths in some communities engendered fear among the populace and motivated the people to seek early treatment and prevention from further spread of the outbreak. The key to the successful response to the outbreak included: Political commitment; Resource mobilization and availability; Support of international community; Good community mobilization and cooperation from the communities; Commitment and dedication from the Health Care Providers and the volunteers; Team work and delegation; Good communication and support from the media. (Excerpt)
Gender mainstreaming in emerging disease surveillance and response, Western Pacific Region. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/16/2011; Draft Background Paper 16)The primary lessons learned from this case study are that gender awareness training of staff and staff collective planning are useful avenues by which to begin the process of gender mainstreaming. Additionally, full support from all levels of leadership has been crucial to the success of gender mainstreaming within the Division. In particular, support for gender mainstreaming and pressure to implement gender mainstreaming by Division and Regional Office leadership have been crucial to the early success of these efforts. (Excerpt)
Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive. 2011-2015.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011.  p. (UNAIDS/ JC2137E)This Global Plan provides the foundation for country-led movement towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive. The Global Plan was developed through a consultative process by a high level Global Task Team convened by UNAIDS. It brought together 25 countries and 30 civil society, private sector, networks of people living with HIV and international organizations to chart a roadmap to achieving this goal by 2015.
Closing the gap: Policy into practice on social determinants of health. Discussion paper to inform proceedings at the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October, 2011.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO}, 2011.  p.This discussion paper aims to inform proceedings at the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health about how countries can implement action on social determinants of health, including the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Evidence from countries that have made progress in addressing social determinants and reducing health inequities shows that action is required across all of five key building blocks, which have been selected as the five World conference themes: 1. Governance to tackle the root causes of health inequities: implementing action on social determinants of health; 2. Promoting participation: community leadership for action on social determinants; 3. The role of the health sector, including public health programmes, in reducing health inequities; 4. Global action on social determinants: aligning priorities and stakeholders; 5. Monitoring progress: measurement and analysis to inform policies and build accountability on social determinants. (Excerpt)
Strategic considerations for strengthening the linkages between family planning and HIV / AIDS policies, programs, and services.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2009. 31 p.Many governmental and nongovernmental public health agencies are pursuing and, in some cases, scaling up programs that integrate family planning (FP) and HIV services. In response to calls from public-health decision makers for guidance on FP / HIV integration, the World Health Organization, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and Family Health International developed Strategic Considerations for Strengthening the Linkages between Family Planning and HIV / AIDS Policies, Programs, and Services. The partners drew from publications, the recommendations of more than 100 experts in FP and HIV / AIDS, and lessons learned from field experience. The document is designed to help program planners, implementers, and managers -- including government officials and other country-level stakeholders -- make appropriate decisions about whether to pursue the integration of FP and HIV services. It also explains how to pursue integration in a strategic and systematic manner, in order to achieve maximum public health benefit.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Mar. 97 p. (UNAIDS/07.08E; JC1311E)In April 2003, the Committee of Cosponsoring Organizations of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) approved a Learning Strategy to help UN system staff develop competence on HIV and AIDS. The goals of the Learning Strategy are: to develop the knowledge and competence of the UN and its staff so that they are able to best support national responses to HIV and AIDS; and to ensure that all UN staff members are able to make informed decisions to protect themselves from HIV and, if they are infected or affected by HIV, to ensure that they know where to turn for the best possible care and treatment. This includes ensuring that staff members fully understand the UN's HIV and AIDS workplace policies and how they are implemented. To support UN country teams to implement the Learning Strategy, Learning Facilitators were selected at country level and trained in a series of regional workshops. The Learning Facilitators were then expected to ensure - along with the country teams-that the standards of the Learning Strategy were realized. This report is comprised of UN HIV/AIDS Learning Strategy case studies from sixteen countries: Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria, the Pan American Health Organization headquarters (United States), Pakistan, Paraguay, Vienna (Austria), Viet Nam, and Yemen. It presents each country's unique experience in implementing the strategy since its adoption in 2003. (excerpt)
Accelerating progress towards the attainment of international reproductive health goals. A framework for implementing the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006.  p. (WHO/RHR/06.3)The World Health Organization's first global Reproductive Health Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly in May 2004 (WHA57.12). The Strategy was developed through extensive consultations in all WHO regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations partner agencies and other key stakeholders. The Strategy recognizes the crucial role of sexual and reproductive health in social and economic development in all communities. It aims to improve sexual and reproductive health and targets five core elements: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, reproductive tract infections (RTIs), cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. (excerpt)
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Guinea PRISM II Project, 2005 Oct. 59 p. (Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-471; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 675-A-00-03-00037-00)The PRISM project (Pour Renforcer les Interventions en Santé Reproductive et MST/SIDA) is an initiative of the Republic of Guinea as part of its bilateral cooperation with the United States of America designed to increase the utilization of quality reproductive health services. The project is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and is implemented by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) in collaboration with the John Hopkins University/Center for Communication Programs (JHU/CCP) and Engenderhealth. The project's intervention zones correspond to the natural region of Upper Guinea as well as Kissidougou prefecture, thus covering all of the 9 prefectures of Kankan and Faranah administrative regions. This annual report covers the activities and results of PRISM over the fiscal year 2005, October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005. Like all of PRISM's activity reports, the present report is structured according to the 4 intermediate result areas: (1) increased access to reproductive health services and products, (2) improved quality of services at health facilities, (3) increased demand of reproductive health services and products (4) improved coordination of health interventions. The report consists of three parts. The first part presents the introduction, an executive summary, and the summary of the principal results attained over the course of the year in each of the four intermediate results (IR). The second part presents in detail for each IR the project's strategies and approaches, the implemented activities and the results attained over the course of the year. The third part presents the operational aspects having had an impact on the project over the course of the year. (excerpt)
Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS; core indicators. United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV / AIDS.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Jul.  p.Expenditures: 1. Amount of national funds disbursed by governments in low- and middle-income countries. Policy Development and Implementation Status: 2. National Composite Policy Index: Areas covered: prevention, care and support, human rights, civil society involvement, and monitoring and evaluation Target groups: people living with HIV, women, youth, orphans, and most-at-risk populations. National Programmes: 3. Percentage of schools with teachers who have been trained in life-skills-based HIV education and who taught it during the last academic year. 4. Percentage of large enterprises/companies which have HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes. 5. Percentage of women and men with sexually transmitted infections at health care facilities who are appropriately diagnosed, treated and counseled. 6. Percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving a complete course of antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission. (excerpt)