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Your search found 11 Results

  1. 1

    Skilled birth attendants.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2011. [4] p.

    As part of its "Making Pregnancy Safer" series, the World Health Organization answers the following questions about skilled birth attendants: Who is a skilled birth attendant? In how many births do skilled attendants assist? How do skilled attendants care for mothers and babies? How does skilled birth care impact on maternal mortality? How can the coverage be increased? What does WHO do to increase skilled care at birth?
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    [Implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for management of severe malnutrition in a hospital in Northeast Brazil] Implementacao do protocolo da Organizacao Mundial da Saude para manejo da desnutricao grave em hospital no Nordeste do Brasil.

    Falbo AR; Alves JG; Batista Filho M; Cabral-Filho JE

    Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2006 Mar; 22(3):561-570.

    To assess the implementation of WHO guidelines for managing severely malnourished hospitalized children, a case-series study was performed with 117 children from 1 to 60 months of age. A checklist was prepared according to steps in the guidelines and applied to each patient at discharge, thus assessing the procedures adopted during hospitalization. Daily spreadsheets on food and liquid intake, clinical data, prescribed treatment, and laboratory results were also used. 36 steps were evaluated, 24 of which were followed correctly in more than 80% of cases; the proportion was 50 to 80% for seven steps and less than 50% for five steps. Monitoring that required frequent physician and nursing staff bedside presence was associated with difficulties. With some minor adjustments, the guidelines can be followed without great difficulty and without compromising the more important objective of reducing case-fatality. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Measurement and standardization protocols for anthropometry used in the construction of a new international growth reference.

    de Onis M; Onyango AW; Van den Broeck J; Chumlea WC; Martorell R

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S27-S36.

    Thorough training, continuous standardization, and close monitoring of the adherence to measurement procedures during data collection are essential for minimizing random error and bias in multicenter studies. Rigorous anthropometry and data collection protocols were used in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study to ensure high data quality. After the initial training and standardization, study teams participated in standardization sessions every two months for a continuous assessment of the precision and accuracy of their measurements. Once a year the teams were restandardized against the WHO lead anthropometrist, who observed their measurement techniques and retrained any deviating observers. Robust and precise equipment was selected and adapted for field use. The anthropometrists worked in pairs, taking measurements independently, and repeating measurements that exceeded preset maximum allowable differences. Ongoing central and local monitoring identified anthropometrists deviating from standard procedures, and immediate corrective action was taken. The procedures described in this paper are a model for research settings. (author's)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Assessment of gross motor development in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study.

    Wijnhoven TM; de Onis M; Onyango AW; Wang T; Bjoerneboe GE

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S37-S45.

    The objective of the Motor Development Study was to describe the acquisition of selected gross motor milestones among affluent children growing up in different cultural settings. This study was conducted in Ghana, India, Norway, Oman, and the United States as part of the longitudinal component of the World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS). Infants were followed from the age of four months until they could walk independently. Six milestones that are fundamental to acquiring self-sufficient erect locomotion and are simple to evaluate were assessed: sitting without support, hands-and-knees crawling, standing with assistance, walking with assistance, standing alone, and walking alone. The information was collected by both the children's caregivers and trained MGRS fieldworkers. The caregivers assessed and recorded the dates when the milestones were achieved for the first time according to established criteria. Using standardized procedures, the fieldworkers independently assessed the motor performance of the children and checked parental recording at home visits. To ensure standardized data collection, the sites conducted regular standardization sessions. Data collection and data quality control took place simultaneously. Data verification and cleaning were performed until all queries had been satisfactorily resolved. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Measuring progress towards the MDG for maternal health: Including a measure of the health system's capacity to treat obstetric complications.

    Bailey P; Paxton A; Lobis S; Fry D

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006 Jun; 93(3):292-299.

    This paper argues for an additional indicator for measuring progress of the Millennium Development Goal for maternal health—the availability of emergency obstetric care. MDG monitoring will be based on two indicators: the maternal mortality ratio and the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel. Strengths and weaknesses of a third indicator are discussed. The availability of EmOC measures the capacity of the health system to respond to direct obstetric complications. Benefits to using this additional indicator are its usefulness in determining an adequate distribution of services and showing management at all levels what life-saving interventions are not being provided, and stimulate thought as to why. It can reflect programmatic changes over a relatively short period of time and data requirements are not onerous. A measure of strength of the health system is important since many interventions depend on the health system for their implementation. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Interim WHO clinical staging of HIV / AIDS and HIV / AIDS case definitions for surveillance. African region.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005. [46] p. (WHO/HIV/2005.02)

    With a view to facilitating the scale-up of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the African Region the present document outlines recent revisions made by WHO to the clinical staging of HIV/AIDS and to case definitions for HIV/AIDS disease surveillance. These interim guidelines are based on an international drafting meeting held in Saas Fee in June 2004 and on recommendations made by experts from African countries at a meeting held in Nairobi in December of the same year. The revisions to the clinical staging target professionals ranging from senior consultants in teaching and referral hospitals to surveillance officers and first-level health care providers, all of whom have important roles in caring for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), including children. It is proposed that countries review, adapt and repackage the guidelines as appropriate for specific tasks at different levels of health service delivery. It is hoped that national HIV/ AIDS programmes in African countries will thus be assisted to develop, revise or strengthen their ART guidelines, patient monitoring and surveillance efforts. The interim clinical staging and revised definitions for surveillance are currently being reviewed in the other WHO regions and will be finalized at a global meeting to be held in September 2005. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Impact of external assistance: review of the tuberculosis programme in Karnataka, India (1999-2001).


    Health Administrator. 2003 Jan-Jul; 15(1-2):102-105.

    RNTCP in Karnataka is a centrally sponsored project financed by the World Bank at a total cost of about 18 crores. Inspite of the fact that Karnataka has been a pioneer in initiating Tuberculosis Programme, the state stands listed with Assam, Bihar, J&K, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh as the most difficult areas for implementation. Questions are raised as to the impact of external assistance in the control and implementation of the Tuberculosis Programme. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    DengueNet Implementation in the Americas. Report of a WHO / PAHO / CDC Meeting, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 9-11 July 2002.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response; Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]. Division of Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control; United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, 2003. [45] p. (Global Health Security. Epidemic Alert and Response; WHO/CDS/CSR/GAR/2003.8; PAHO/HCP/HCT/V/230/03)

    The geographical spread of both the mosquito vectors and the viruses has led to the global resurgence of epidemic dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (dengue/DHF) in the past 25 years with the development of hyperendemicity in many urban centres of the tropics. Globally, 2.5 billion people live in areas where dengue viruses can be transmitted. The number of countries with epidemic DHF is continuing to rise. A pandemic in 1998, in which 1.2 million cases of dengue fever and DHF were reported from 56 countries, was unprecedented. Data for 2001-2002 indicate a situation of comparable magnitude. It is estimated that 50 million dengue infections occur each year with 500 000 cases of DHF and at least 12 000 deaths, mainly among children. Only a small proportion of cases are reported to WHO. The challenge for national and international health agencies is to reverse the trend of increased epidemic dengue activity and increased incidence of DHF. Epidemiological and laboratory-based surveillance is required to monitor and guide dengue/DHF prevention and control programmes, regardless of whether the form of control used is mosquito control or possible vaccination if an effective and safe vaccine becomes available. The reporting of dengue/DHF however is not standardized. Epidemiological and laboratory data are often collected by different institutions and reported in different formats, resulting in delay and comparability problems at regional and international levels. To address these problems WHO has created DengueNet, an Internet-based central data management system to collect and analyse standardized epidemiological and virological data for the global surveillance of dengue/DHF and to provide national and international public health authorities with epidemiological and virological indicators by place and time that can guide public health prevention and control actions. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Monitoring and reassessment: tools to sustain progress.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Wellstart International

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1999. [209] p. (WHO/NHD/99.2)

    WHO, in close cooperation with Wellstart International, its collaborating centre on breastfeeding, began responding to this demand in 1997 by developing a set of monitoring/reassessment tools. Many partners were involved in its preparation (see acknowledgments), and UNICEF's office for the European Region was especially supportive of the process. The tools were field-tested in Brazil, Egypt, Nicaragua and Poland, which provided valuable feedback for finalizing the tools and enabled participating countries to launch or further develop their own BFHI monitoring and reassessment process. The tools are designed to foster involvement of hospital management and staff in problem identification and planning for sustaining or improving implementation of the Ten Steps. This strategy should contribute to long-term sustainability of BFHI and help ensure its credibility. The monitoring and reassessment tools are: Prototypes that can be adapted to meet country needs. Based on the "global criteria" for assessment of the "Ten steps to successful breastfeeding". Easy to use for assessors familiar with the BFHI assessment process and easy to teach to new assessors. Flexible, so that tools can be added or deleted and a system devised for use either internally by a hospital for on-going self-monitoring, or externally for periodic monitoring and reassessment. Easy to use in a short time, if desired. For example, the monitoring or reassessment process can be completed in just one day. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Working document on monitoring and evaluating of national ART programmes in the rapid scale-up to 3 by 5.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [2003]. 20 p.

    Currently, five to six million people infected with HIV in the developing world need access to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy to survive. Only 400,000 have this access. The failure to deliver ARVs to the millions of people who need them is a global health emergency. To address this emergency, WHO is fully committed to achieving the "3 by 5" target - getting three million people on ARVs by the end of 2005. This is a means to achieving the treatment goal: universal access to ARVS for all who need them. WHO will lead the effort, with UNAIDS and other partners, using its skills and experience in coordinating global responses to diseases such as the effective and rapid control of SARS. The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the 3 by 5 initiative is a high priority. It will be crucial to know how countries are meeting the agreed goals and objectives and how local levels (districts, Regions or Provinces) are monitoring progress and identifying any problems they may encounter. The need for a substantial amount of country input and ownership of the process will require a refinement of the M&E strategy in close consultation with countries. However, key components of the M&E strategy can be developed now, with further refinements and developments to come later. This document is a work in progress. It represents the best effort to describe a coherent approach to the monitoring and evaluation of scaling up to the reach the goal of 3 by 5 that is possible at this time. This working document is best viewed as a step in a process that will include field testing, the gathering of additional experience, additional review, the validation of indicators presented and subsequently refinement. If inadequacies are found in this working document, they are mostly the result of incomplete information and experience on which to base decisions. That will be corrected as experience mounts. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Implementing the reproductive health approach.

    Fathalla MF

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.

    The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
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