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Progress in the establishment and strengthening of national immunization technical advisory groups: Analysis from the 2013 WHO/UNICEF joint reporting form, data for 2012.
Vaccine. 2013 Nov 4; 31(46):5314-5320.The majority of industrialized and some developing countries have established National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). To enable systematic global monitoring of the existence and functionality of NITAGs, in 2011, WHO and UNICEF included related questions in the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF) that provides an official means to globally collect indicators of immunization program performance. These questions relate to six basic process indicators. According to the analysis of the 2013 JRF, data for 2012, notable progress was achieved between 2010 and 2012 and by the end of 2012, 99 countries (52%) reported the existence of a NITAG with a formal legislative or administrative basis (with a high of 86% in the Eastern Mediterranean Region - EMR), among the countries that reported data in the NITAG section of the JRF.There were 63 (33%) countries with a NITAG that met six process indicators (47% increase over the 43 reported in 2010) including a total of 38 developing countries. 11% of low income countries reported a NITAG that meets all six process criteria, versus 29% of middle income countries and 57% of the high income ones. Countries with smaller populations reported the existence of a NITAG that meets all six process criteria less frequently than more populated countries (23% for less populated countries versus 43% for more populated ones).However, progress needs to be accelerated to reach the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) target of ensuring all countries have support from a NITAG. The GVAP represents a major opportunity to boost the institutionalization of NITAGs. A special approach needs to be explored to allow small countries to benefit from sub-regional or other countries advisory groups.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, [WHO], 2009. 48 p. (Analytic Case Studies. Initiatives to Increase the Use of Health Services by Adolescents)This case study describes how the Government of Mozambique scaled up its successful youth HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health program to a national level. Geared toward developing-country governments and nongovernmental organizations, the case study provides a technical overview of the program and its interventions, a detailed description of the scale-up process and lessons learned, and the program's achievements.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, HIV/AIDS Branch, . 8 p. (Guidance Brief)This Brief has been developed by the Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on HIV and Young People1 to assist United Nations Country Teams (UNCT) and UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS in providing guidance to their staffs, governments, development partners, civil society and other implementing partners on HIV interventions for young people in the education sector. It is part of a series of seven global Guidance Briefs that focus on HIV prevention, treatment, care and support interventions for young people that can be delivered through different settings and for a range of target groups.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, HIV/AIDS Branch, . 8 p. (Guidance Brief)This Brief has been developed by the Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on HIV and Young People1 to assist United Nations Country Teams (UNCT) and UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS in providing guidance to their staffs, governments, development partners, civil society and other implementing partners on community HIV interventions for young people. It is part of a series of seven global Guidance Briefs that focus on HIV prevention, treatment, care and support interventions for young people that can be delivered through different settings and for a range of target groups.
Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. 2007 Jul-Sep; 4(3):109-10; discussion 111-2.In the last several months, there have been discussions in the media, including in this journal (1), about issues related to how AIDS vaccine trials are conducted in India. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) has partnered with the ministry of health and family welfare in India through the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) since 2002 to implement the AIDS vaccine research and development programme. With our partners, we strongly support transparency and the highest ethical standards in our joint efforts to find and deliver an AIDS vaccine that the world so desperately needs. In fact, IAVI's intellectual property agreements are also used as a mechanism to avoid any delay in the introduction of vaccines to developing countries (delays of more than 10 years or so in the past) by insisting that any vaccine will be made simultaneously available in developed and developing countries (2). (excerpt)
[New York, New York], United Nations Development Group, 2006 May 19. 11 p.These proposed working mechanisms for the Joint UN Teams on AIDS have been developed to guide UN Country Teams in their establishment, per the instructions of the UN Secretary-General . It includes information relating to the background, strategies and tools that can be used to harness the potential of the UN Country Team to support the national AIDS response. It provides options for establishing an institutional framework for Joint UN Teams on AIDS and for putting in place a joint UN HIV/AIDS Programme of Support. This paper builds on existing tools, frameworks and legislation, as well as the experiences of countries currently undergoing the process. It strives to balance increasing demands for joint programming with the reality of country implementation contexts. It is a work in progress, to be updated after a period of review to determine if the strategies outlined here are effective, or if innovative practices have emerged out of country experiences. (excerpt)
Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on construction of core indicators. 2008 reporting.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Apr. 139 p. (UNAIDS/07.12E; JC1318E)The primary purpose of this document is to provide key constituents who are actively involved in a country's response to AIDS with essential information on core indicators that measure the effectiveness of the national response. These guidelines will also help ensure the consistency and transparency of the process used by national governments. In addition, this information can be used by UNAIDS to prepare regional and global progress reports on implementation of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Countries are strongly encouraged to integrate the core indicators into their ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities. These indicators are designed to help countries assess the current state of their national response while simultaneously contributing to a better understanding of the global response to the AIDS pandemic, including progress towards meeting the targets in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS. Given the dual purposes of the indicators, the guidelines in this document are designed to improve the quality and consistency of data collected at the country level, which will enhance the accuracy of conclusions drawn from the data at both national and global levels. This document also includes an overview of global indicators that will be used by UNAIDS and its partners to assess key components of the response that are best measured on a worldwide basis. (excerpt)
Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS; core indicators. United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV / AIDS.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Jul.  p.Expenditures: 1. Amount of national funds disbursed by governments in low- and middle-income countries. Policy Development and Implementation Status: 2. National Composite Policy Index: Areas covered: prevention, care and support, human rights, civil society involvement, and monitoring and evaluation Target groups: people living with HIV, women, youth, orphans, and most-at-risk populations. National Programmes: 3. Percentage of schools with teachers who have been trained in life-skills-based HIV education and who taught it during the last academic year. 4. Percentage of large enterprises/companies which have HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes. 5. Percentage of women and men with sexually transmitted infections at health care facilities who are appropriately diagnosed, treated and counseled. 6. Percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving a complete course of antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 May. 51 p. (UNAIDS/05.08E)Partners engaged in the global, national and local responses to AIDS have agreed on the "Three Ones"--one national AIDS framework, one national AIDS authority and one system for monitoring and evaluation--as guiding principles for improving the country-level response. This report describes how far the partners have moved from principle to practice and points to the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Its aim is to inform and provoke discussion and debate as all the partners--all levels of government, bilateral and multilateral donors, international institutions, and civil society--seek answers to the question, "How can we, individually and collectively, make optimal use of the limited resources available to us, improve our response to the AIDS epidemic and accelerate our progress toward achievement of the Millennium Development Goals?" (excerpt)
“Three Ones” key principles . “Coordination of National Responses to HIV / AIDS”. Guiding principles for national authorities and their partners.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. 4 p.The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a genuine global emergency taking the lives of eight thousand people a day and threatening the lives of tens of millions more as the infection continues to spread around the world. New but still limited resources to respond to the needs of people living with HIV and AIDS and those at risk of infection will be utilized most efficiently if there is maximum coordination within the international community. To leverage resources and have the maximum impact on the global response to AIDS, all parties should strive to target their programmes on the priority needs of affected countries strive, seeking to avoid duplication of effort. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 2 p.The AIDS epidemic is a complex global crisis, which continues to worsen. At the same time, the world is responding more effectively than ever before. National responses are broader and stronger, and have improved access to financial resources and commodities. We, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies meeting with national leaders combating the spread of AIDS, reaffirm our broad and sustained commitment to supporting national AIDS responses. We endorse the “Three Ones” or key principles for concerted AIDS action at country level, with a view toward achieving the most effective and efficient use of available resources and ensuring rapid action and result-based management. These principles – detailed in the conference papers – are: One agreed HIV/AIDS Action Framework that provides the basis for coordinating the work of all partners. One National AIDS Coordinating Authority, with a broad based multi-sectoral mandate. One agreed country level Monitoring and Evaluation System. (excerpt)
Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2003 Mar; 101(3):150-151.Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem in spite of DOTS programme recommended by WHO. One person dies from TB in India every minute. Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) is playing a major role in global DOTS expansion. DOTS coverage has expanded from 2% of the population in mid-1998 to 57% by the end of January, 2003. RNTCP has made a significant contribution to public health capacity. The programme has saved the people of India hundreds of millions of dollars. Monitoring the clinical course using smear microscopy and accurately reporting treatment outcomes is essential in well-functioning DOTS programme. RNTCP has invested heavily and made significant strides in maintaining and improving quality DOTS. State and district level programme reviews are a key component of the process. RNTCP has established guidelines for the involvement of the private sector and medical colleges. A member by ongoing technical activities will improve RNTCP’s surveillance and monitoring systems. However a challenge lies with the programme and a collective effort is welcome. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003.  p.This manual is designed to assist national UNFPA officers in planning, designing, implementing and evaluating communication interventions for HIV prevention among adolescents that integrate advocacy, behaviour change communication and education with other policy and service components. The manual provides a series of checklists to guide the programme or project officer in addressing key questions related evidenced-based communication programming for HIV prevention among adolescents. The checklists follow a stepwise decision-making process and serve as menus of options to conduct thorough needs assessments, analyse programmatic responses, and handle strategic programming decisions. The first chapter sets the tone in relation to UNFPA’s support at the county level. It describes the three main communication approaches, HIV prevention, adolescent reproductive health, and explains how they relate to the UNFPA programming cycle. The second and third chapters review the situation of HIV among adolescents from the viewpoint of their priority needs and government policies and intended response. Beneficiary needs and state policies become the set of priority issues that communication will need to address. The fourth chapter assesses the ability of organizations involved in HIV prevention among youths to identify needs for capacity development and to help UNFPA determine its role vis-à-vis implementing partners. The fifth chapter compiles a set of desirable programme results in advocacy, behaviour change communication and education that focus on HIV prevention among young people. It also provides tips for selecting among them. The sixth chapter provides information and suggestions for selecting the communication strategy that will be most effective, based on assessed adolescent communication and health needs. The seventh chapter reviews issues to strengthen partnerships, management and coordination in programme implementation. Chapter eight provides tips and tools for monitoring and evaluating processes and outcomes. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. iv, 37 p. (ESA/P/WP.182)Governments’ views and policies with regard to the use of contraceptives have changed considerably during the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, many developing countries have experienced a transition from high to low fertility with a speed and magnitude that far exceeds the earlier fertility transition in European countries. Government policies on access to contraceptives have played an important role in the shift in reproductive behaviour. Low fertility now prevails in some developing countries, as well as in most developed countries. The use of contraception is currently widespread throughout the world. The highest prevalence rates at present are found in more developed countries and in China. This chapter begins with a global overview of the current situation with regard to Governments’ views and policies on contraception. It then briefly summarizes the five phases in the evolution of population policies, from the founding of the United Nations to the beginning of the 21st century. It examines the various policy recommendations concerning contraception adopted at the three United Nations international population conferences, and it discusses the role of regional population conferences in shaping the policies of developed and developing countries. As part of its work programme, the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the global monitoring of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). To this end, the Population Division maintains a Population Policy Data Bank, which includes information from many sources. Among these sources are official Government responses to the United Nations Population Inquiries; Government and inter-governmental publications, documents and other sources; and non-governmental publications and related materials. (excerpt)