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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 56 p.The WHO Guidelines on Ethical Issues in Public Health Surveillance is the first international framework of its kind, it fills an important gap. The goal of the guideline development project was to help policymakers and practitioners navigate the ethical issues presented by public health surveillance. This document outlines 17 ethical guidelines that can assist everyone involved in public health surveillance, including officials in government agencies, health workers, NGOs and the private sector. Surveillance, when conducted ethically, is the foundation for programs to promote human well-being at the population level. It can contribute to reducing inequalities: pockets of suffering that are unfair, unjust and preventable cannot be addressed if they are not first made visible. But surveillance is not without risks for participants and sometimes poses ethical dilemmas. Issues about privacy, autonomy, equity, and the common good need to be considered and balanced, and knowing how to do so can be challenging in practice.
Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. 2007 Jul-Sep; 4(3):109-10; discussion 111-2.In the last several months, there have been discussions in the media, including in this journal (1), about issues related to how AIDS vaccine trials are conducted in India. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) has partnered with the ministry of health and family welfare in India through the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) since 2002 to implement the AIDS vaccine research and development programme. With our partners, we strongly support transparency and the highest ethical standards in our joint efforts to find and deliver an AIDS vaccine that the world so desperately needs. In fact, IAVI's intellectual property agreements are also used as a mechanism to avoid any delay in the introduction of vaccines to developing countries (delays of more than 10 years or so in the past) by insisting that any vaccine will be made simultaneously available in developed and developing countries (2). (excerpt)
WHO ethical and safety recommendations for researching, documenting and monitoring sexual violence in emergencies.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007.  p.Sexual violence in humanitarian emergencies, such as armed conflict and natural disasters, is a serious, even life-threatening, public health and human rights issue. Growing concern about the scale of the problem has led to increased efforts to learn more about the contexts in which this particular form of violence occurs, its prevalence, risk factors, its links to HIV infection, and also how best to prevent and respond to it. Recent years have thus seen an increase in the number of information gathering activities that deal with sexual violence in emergencies. These activities often involve interviewing women about their experiences of sexual violence. It is generally accepted that the prevalence of sexual violence is underreported almost everywhere in the world. This is an inevitable result of survivors' well-founded anxiety about the potentially harmful social, physical, psychological and/or legal consequences of disclosing their experience of sexual violence. In emergency situations, which arecharacterized by instability, insecurity, fear, dependence and loss of autonomy, as well as a breakdown of law and order, and widespread disruption of community and family support systems, victims of sexual violence may be even less likely to disclose incidents. (excerpt)