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Your search found 30 Results

  1. 1
    392975
    Peer Reviewed

    Parents as partners in adolescent HIV prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa: an evaluation of the current United Nations' approach.

    Wathuta J

    International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2016 Nov 10; 30(2)

    The United Nations's (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) include the target (3.3) of ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030. A major challenge in this regard is to curb the incidence of HIV among adolescents, the number two cause of their death in Africa. In Eastern and Southern Africa, they are mainly infected through heterosexual transmission. Research findings about parental influence on the sexual behavior of their adolescent children are reviewed and findings indicate that parental communication, monitoring and connectedness contribute to the avoidance of risky sexual behavior in adolescents. This article evaluates the extent to which these three dimensions of parenting have been factored in to current HIV prevention recommendations relating to adolescent boys and girls. Four pertinent UN reports are analyzed and the results used to demonstrate that the positive role of parents or primary caregivers vis-a-vis risky sexual behavior has tendentially been back-grounded or even potentially undermined. A more explicit inclusion of parents in adolescent HIV prevention policy and practice is essential - obstacles notwithstanding - enabling their indispensable partnership towards ending an epidemic mostly driven by sexual risk behavior. Evidence from successful or promising projects is included to illustrate the practical feasibility and fruitfulness of this approach.
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  2. 2
    375280

    World Malaria Report 2016.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 186 p.

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Malaria Report 2016 reveals that children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa have greater access to effective malaria control. Across the region, a steep increase in diagnostic testing for children and preventive treatment for pregnant women has been reported over the last five years. Among all populations at risk of malaria, the use of insecticide-treated nets has expanded rapidly. But in many countries in the region, substantial gaps in programme coverage remain. Funding shortfalls and fragile health systems are undermining overall progress, jeopardizing the attainment of global targets.
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  3. 3
    340861

    Zika: Strategic response framework and joint operations plan, January-June 2016.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Outbreaks and Health Emergencies Programme

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Feb. [32] p.

    WHO has launched a global Strategic Response Framework and Joint Operations Plan to guide the international response to the spread of Zika virus infection and the neonatal malformations and neurological conditions associated with it. The strategy focuses on mobilizing and coordinating partners, experts and resources to help countries enhance surveillance of the Zika virus and disorders that could be linked to it, improve vector control, effectively communicate risks, guidance and protection measures, provide medical care to those affected and fast-track research and development of vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics.
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  4. 4
    383254

    Systematic review of integration between maternal, neonatal, and child health and nutrition and family planning. Final report.

    Brickley DB; Chibber K; Spaulding A; Azman H; Lindegren ML; Kennedy C; Kennedy G

    Washington, D.C., Global Health Technical Assistance Project, 2011 May. 284 p. (Report No. 11-01-303-03; USAID Contract No. GHS-I-00-05-00005-00)

    This reveiw seeks to focus on the MNCHN and FP components of SRH to examine the evidence for MNCHN-FP integration, review the most up-to-date factors that promote or inhibit program effectiveness, discuss best practices and lessons learned, and identify recommendations for program planners, policymakers, and researchers. The objective was to address these key questions: 1) What are the key integration models that are available in the literature and have been evaluated?; 2) What are the key outcomes of these integration approaches?; 3) Do integrated services increase or improve service coverage, cost, quality, use, effectiveness, and health?; 4) What is the quality of the evaluation study designs and the quality of the data from these evaluations?; 5) What types of integration are effective in what context?; 6) What are the best practices, processes, and tools that lead to effective, integrated services? What are the barriers to effective integration?; 7) What are the evidence/research and program gaps? What more do we need to know?; and 8) How can future policies and programs be strengthened?
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  5. 5
    381486

    Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication: Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2013-August 2014.

    Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire / Section D'hygiene Du Secretariat De La Societe Des Nations. 2014 Oct 31; 89(44):493-9.

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  6. 6
    381485

    Polio-free certification of the WHO South-East Asia Region, March 2014.

    Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire / Section D'hygiene Du Secretariat De La Societe Des Nations. 2014 Oct 31; 89(44):500-4.

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  7. 7
    335271

    Monitoring national cervical cancer prevention and control programmes: quality control and quality assurance for visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)-based programmes.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013. [41] p.

    This guide outlines quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) considerations to support introduction or scale-up of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a screening test for cervical cancer, within the context of national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control programmes. The guide proposes a framework for QC and QA including a core set of indicators, and provides examples for how the indicators can be set, measured and used to strengthen programme implementation. The guide is intended primarily for programme managers, supervisors and other stakeholders working in public health programmes for cervical cancer prevention and control.
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  8. 8
    335021

    Report of the Director General of the World Health Organization. Implementation of General Assembly resolution 66/289 on consolidating gains and accelerating efforts to control and eliminate malaria in developing countries, particularly in Africa, by 2015.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Director-General

    [New York, New York], United Nations, General Assembly, 2013 Apr 5. [19] p. (A/67/825)

    The present report is submitted in response to General Assembly resolution 66/289. It provides a review of progress in the implementation of that resolution, focusing on the adoption and scaling-up of interventions recommended by the World Health Organization in 99 countries with ongoing malaria transmission and key challenges impeding progress, including a shortfall in financing for malaria control globally. It provides an assessment of progress towards the 2015 global malaria targets, including Millennium Development Goal 6, targets set through the African Union and the World Health Assembly and goals set through the Global Malaria Action Plan of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. It elaborates on the challenges limiting the full achievement of the targets and provides recommendations to ensure that progress is accelerated up to and beyond 2015.
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  9. 9
    334713

    Global vaccine action plan. Report by the Secretariat.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 22. [8] p. (A66/19)

    The Executive Board at its 132nd session in January 2013, considered and noted an earlier version of this report. The present document has been amended in response to Board members’ comments and updated to include details of recent developments. It also reports on the status of progress made towards achieving the goals of the Decade of Vaccines. Four sets of activities are essential to put the plan into practice and to turn the actions into results: (1) development of guidance for putting the plan into practice; (2) completion and implementation of a mechanism for evaluation and accountability in alignment with the accountability framework for the United Nations Secretary-General’s Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health; (3) securing commitments from stakeholders; and (4) publicizing the opportunities, while acknowledging the challenges, offered by the Decade of Vaccines. This report summarizes the progress made in these areas. (Excerpt)
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  10. 10
    333433

    Report on country experience: A multi-sectoral response to combat polio outbreak in Namibia. Draft background paper.

    Namibia. Ministry of Health and Social Services

    [Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011. [20] p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/19/2011; Draft Background Paper 19)

    Namibia witnessed an outbreak of Wild Polio Type 1 virus in 2006. A total of 323 suspected cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis were reported, of which 19 were confirmed as Wild Polio Virus Type 1. The outbreak affected mostly the older population and thirty-two of the suspected cases died. The country mounted an immediate response that enabled the whole population to be vaccinated against polio virus. The outbreak of the epidemic witnessed an unprecedented response with the country coming together in the spirit of one Nation facing a common enemy. The reported deaths in some communities engendered fear among the populace and motivated the people to seek early treatment and prevention from further spread of the outbreak. The key to the successful response to the outbreak included: Political commitment; Resource mobilization and availability; Support of international community; Good community mobilization and cooperation from the communities; Commitment and dedication from the Health Care Providers and the volunteers; Team work and delegation; Good communication and support from the media. (Excerpt)
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  11. 11
    333432

    Gender mainstreaming in emerging disease surveillance and response, Western Pacific Region. Draft background paper.

    Rajan H; Bhushan A

    [Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011. [25] p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/16/2011; Draft Background Paper 16)

    The primary lessons learned from this case study are that gender awareness training of staff and staff collective planning are useful avenues by which to begin the process of gender mainstreaming. Additionally, full support from all levels of leadership has been crucial to the success of gender mainstreaming within the Division. In particular, support for gender mainstreaming and pressure to implement gender mainstreaming by Division and Regional Office leadership have been crucial to the early success of these efforts. (Excerpt)
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  12. 12
    332015

    The Fistula Fortnight: Healing Wounds, Renewing Hope, 21 February - 6 March 2005, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria.

    Iliyasu Z; Idoko L; Ramsey K

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], [2007]. 46 p.

    The Fistula Fortnight accomplished a number of goals: it mobilized resources for obstetric fistula and safe motherhood; increased public awareness that fistula is preventable; contributed to combating the marginalization of women who suffer from fistula; strengthened institutional capacity to manage fistula; and began to address the broader needs of women living with the disability. While the surgeries conducted represent only a small portion of the backlog, the Fistula Fortnight provided a strategic opportunity to raise awareness and motivate action among policymakers, national and local leaders, and the general public about the need to increase efforts to both prevent and treat fistula. (Excerpt)
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  13. 13
    325499

    WHO ethical and safety recommendations for researching, documenting and monitoring sexual violence in emergencies.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007. [38] p.

    Sexual violence in humanitarian emergencies, such as armed conflict and natural disasters, is a serious, even life-threatening, public health and human rights issue. Growing concern about the scale of the problem has led to increased efforts to learn more about the contexts in which this particular form of violence occurs, its prevalence, risk factors, its links to HIV infection, and also how best to prevent and respond to it. Recent years have thus seen an increase in the number of information gathering activities that deal with sexual violence in emergencies. These activities often involve interviewing women about their experiences of sexual violence. It is generally accepted that the prevalence of sexual violence is underreported almost everywhere in the world. This is an inevitable result of survivors' well-founded anxiety about the potentially harmful social, physical, psychological and/or legal consequences of disclosing their experience of sexual violence. In emergency situations, which arecharacterized by instability, insecurity, fear, dependence and loss of autonomy, as well as a breakdown of law and order, and widespread disruption of community and family support systems, victims of sexual violence may be even less likely to disclose incidents. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    321000

    Violence and the Millennium Development Goals [letter]

    Afifi M

    Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1034.

    The association between domestic violence and the first five Millennium Development Goals is bidirectional. Violence has a negative effect on efforts to alleviate poverty (MDG 1), and poverty has been shown to increase the likelihood of violence. Similarly, education, women's empowerment, child mortality, and maternal health are all linked to domestic violence. Simwaka and colleagues discussed the association between women's empowerment and violence against women and poor access and control over resources, and recommended putting gender issues in the African agenda to achieve MDG 5. Hence, monitoring the progress in preventing violence should not be separated from monitoring the development process in developing countries. Other challenges such as discrimination, inequity, extremism, religious fanaticism, human rights violations, and the faded democracy process have hampered efforts to combat violence in these countries. Ammar stated that "Egypt would be able to combat public violence (eg, terrorism) better if it addresses co-occurrence of spousal and child abuse than by changing its school curriculum". Moreover, we will not be able to estimate properly the magnitude of domestic violence if its economic costs are not investigated. Therefore, the growing political will to take action against violence is not enough in itself, especially when women feel that spousal abuse is justified and when judges and lawyers are part of a culture that tolerates violence against women. (full text)
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  15. 15
    319155
    Peer Reviewed

    IAP Guidelines 2006 on hospital based management of severely malnourished children (adapted from the WHO guidelines).

    Bhatnagar S; Lodha R; Choudhury P; Sachdev HP; Shah N

    Indian Pediatrics. 2007 Jun 17; 44(6):443-461.

    Malnutrition in children is widely prevalent in India. It is estimated that 57 million children are underweight (moderate and severe). More than 50% of deaths in 0-4 years are associated with malnutrition. The median case fatality rate is approximately 23.5% in severe malnutrition, reaching 50% in edematous malnutrition. There is a need for standardized protocol-based management to improve the outcome of severely malnourished children. In 2006, Indian Academy of Pediatrics undertook the task of developing guidelines for the management of severely malnourished children based on adaptation from the WHO guidelines. We summarize below the revised consensus recommendations (and wherever relevant the rationale) of the group. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    316236
    Peer Reviewed

    Financing tuberculosis control: the role of a global financial monitoring system.

    Floyd K; Pantoja A; Dye C

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 May; 85(5):325-420.

    Control of tuberculosis (TB), like health care in general, costs money. To sustain TB control at current levels, and to make further progress so that global targets can be achieved, information about funding needs, sources of funding, funding gaps and expenditures is important at global, regional, national and sub-national levels. Such data can be used for resource mobilization efforts; to document how funding requirements and gaps are changing over time; to assess whether increases in funding can be translated into increased expenditures and whether increases in expenditure are producing improvements in programme performance; and to identify which countries or regions have the greatest needs and funding gaps. In this paper, we discuss a global system for financial monitoring of TB control that was established in WHO in 2002. By early 2007, this system had accounted for actual or planned expenditures of more than US$ 7 billion and was systematically reporting financial data for countries that carry more than 90% of the global burden of TB. We illustrate the value of this system by presenting major findings that have been produced for the period 2002-2007, including results that are relevant to the achievement of global targets for TB control set for 2005 and 2015. We also analyse the strengths and limitations of the system and its relevance to other health-care programmes. (author's)
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  17. 17
    313124

    Toolkit to combat trafficking in persons.

    United Nations. Office on Drugs and Crime. Anti-Human-Trafficking Unit

    Vienna, Austria, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006. [245] p.

    The present Toolkit was prepared because there is still much to be learned about what works best to prevent and combat human trafficking under various circumstances. It presents a selection of conceptual, legislative and organizational tools in use in different parts of the world. The Toolkit is based on the premise that the problem of trafficking in persons, whether at the national or local level, can only be addressed effectively on the basis of comprehensive strategies that are based on human rights and that take into account the transnational nature of the problem, the many associated criminal activities, the frequent involvement of organized criminal groups and the profound pain, fear and damage suffered by the victims. Although the Toolkit offers a few examples of comprehensive national strategies, most of the tools that it offers focus on one specific aspect of the comprehensive response required. Individual tools may be used to develop comprehensive strategies, or to augment or strengthen some of the essential components of existing ones. Many of these tools will need to be adapted to national or local circumstances. None of the tools, by itself, is sufficient to provide an effective response to the problem. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    312458

    Implementing the new recommendations on the clinical management of diarrhoea: guidelines for policy makers and programme managers.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Zinc Task Force

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 34 p.

    WHO and UNICEF have released revised recommendations aimed at dramatically cutting the number of deaths due to diarrhoea. These new recommendations take into account two significant recent advances: demonstration of the increased efficacy of a new formulation for ORS containing lower concentrations of glucose and salt, and success in using zinc supplementation in addition to rehydration therapy in the management of diarrhoeal diseases. Prevention and treatment of dehydration with ORS and fluid commonly available at home, breastfeeding, continued feeding, selective use of antibiotics, and providing zinc supplementation for 10 to 14 days are the critical therapies that will help us achieve these goals. This manual provides policy makers and programme managers with the information they need to introduce and/or scale up a national decision to introduce the new ORS formulation and zinc supplementation as part of the clinical management of diarrhoeal diseases. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    311779

    Instructions for applying to the Green Light Committee for access to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    Blondal K; Caminero JA; Cegielski P; Espinal MA; Jaramillo E

    [Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. 15 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2006.369)

    Controlling multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is one of the six components of the WHO Stop TB strategy. Although prevention must be the highest priority for TB control programmes, many countries have patients with drug-resistant TB who must be treated too. Such countries should take specific measures to gradually incorporate appropriate strategies for treatment of this form of tuberculosis into their programmes and prevent propagation of drug-resistant TB. Misuse of second-line anti-TB drugs results in further resistance to these same second-line drugs, creating incurable forms of tuberculosis. It is imperative that second-line anti-TB drugs are used wisely. The WHO Guidelines For The Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (herein after referred to as the Guidelines) provide recommendations for appropriate management of drug-resistant TB so as not to generate further drug resistance. To help programmes develop and implement develop and implement strategies for the management of drug resistant TB, the Green Light Committee for Access to Second-line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs (GLC) was created by WHO and its partners in January 2000. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    309917

    Action to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe: a preliminary assessment.

    Dottridge M

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, Child Protection Unit, 2006. 89 p.

    This Report outlines some key findings and recommendations from an assessment of the efforts to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe. Its main purpose is to increase understanding of the work prevention of child trafficking, by looking at the effectiveness of different approaches and their impacts. The assessment covered Albania, Republic of Moldova, Romania and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. The Report is based on a review of relevant research and agency reports as well as interviews with organizations implementing prevention initiatives and with trafficked children from the region. The first part of the Report reviews key terms and definition related to child trafficking, as common understanding about what constitutes trafficking and who might be categorised as a victim is crucial to devising prevention initiatives and guaranteeing adequate protection for trafficked children. Furthermore, to intervene in any of the phases of the trafficking process it is essential to understand specific factors contributing to the situation and the key actors involved. Different approaches to understanding the causes of child trafficking and methods for developing prevention initiatives are also explored. The Report notes that all prevention efforts should incorporate the principles that have proved essential in designing and implementing other initiatives in the ares of child rights and protection. That is, good prevention initiatives should be rooted in child rights principles and provisions, use quality data and analysis, applying programme logic, forge essential partnerships, monitor and evaluate practice and measure the progress towards expected results. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    304947
    Peer Reviewed

    Health, development and the Millennium Development Goals.

    Dodd R; Cassels A

    Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2006 Jul-Sep; 100(5-6):379-387.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which emerged from the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000, are increasingly recognized as the over-arching development framework. As such, the MDG are increasingly guiding the policies of poor countries and aid agencies alike. This article reviews the challenges and opportunities for health presented by the MDG. The opportunities include that three of the eight MDG relate to health -- a recognition that health is central to global agenda of reducing poverty, as well as an important measure of human well-being in its own right. A related point is that the MDG help to focus attention on those health conditions that disproportionally affect the poor (communicable disease, child health and maternal health), which should, in turn, help to strengthen the equity focus of health policies in low-income countries. Further, because the MDG are concrete, it is possible to calculate the cost of achieving them, which in turn strengthens the long-standing calls for higher levels of aid for health. The challenges include that, while the MDG focus on specific diseases and conditions, they cannot be achieved without strengthening health systems. Similarly, progress towards the MDG will require health to be prioritized within overall development and economic policies. In practice, this means applying a health 'lens' to processes such as civil-service reform, decentralization and the drawing-up of frameworks of national expenditure. Finally, the MDG cannot be met with the resources available in low-income countries. While the MDG framework has created pressure for donors to commit to higher levels of aid, the challenge remains to turn these commitments into action. Data are presented to show that, at current rates of progress, the health-related MDG will not be achieved. This disappointing trend could be reversed, however, if the various challenges outlined are met. (author's)
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  22. 22
    182515

    Challenges for communicable disease surveillance and control in southern Iraq, April-June 2003. Letter from Basrah.

    Valenciano M; Coulombier D; Lopes Cardozo B; Colombo A; Alla MJ

    JAMA. 2003 Aug 6; 290(5):654-658.

    The recent war in Iraq presents significant challenges for the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. In early April 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) sent a team of public health experts to Kuwait and a base was established in the southern Iraqi governorate of Basrah on May 3. We present the lessons learned from the communicable disease surveillance and control program implemented in the Basrah governorate in Iraq (population of 1.9 million) in April and May 2003, and we report communicable disease surveillance data through June 2003. Following the war, communicable disease control programs were disrupted, access to safe water was reduced, and public health facilities were looted. Rapid health assessments were carried out in health centers and hospitals to identify priorities for action. A Health Sector Coordination Group was organized with local and international health partners, and an early warning surveillance system for communicable disease was set up. In the first week of May 2003, physicians in hospitals in Basrah suspected cholera cases and WHO formed a cholera control committee. As of June 29, 2003, Iraqi hospital laboratories have con firmed 94 cases of cholera from 7 of the 8 districts of the Basrah governorate. To prevent the transmission of major communicable diseases, restoring basic public health and water/sanitation services is currently a top priority in Iraq. Lack of security continues to be a barrier for effective public health surveillance and response in Iraq. (author's)
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  23. 23
    110144

    Vector control for malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. Report of a WHO study group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Vector Control for Malaria and other Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1995; (857):i-vi, 1-91.

    In 1993, the World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Vector Control for Malaria and other Mosquito-Borne Diseases convened in Geneva to develop well-defined guidelines for implementing the vector control component of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. Goals and objectives of the control strategy, vector control, and the study group as well as those concerning use of the insecticide DDT are addressed in the meeting's published report. A review of the global status and trends in malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases follows. Malaria status and experiences, priorities, and trends in vector control in the various WHO regions are examined. One section reviews objectives of vector control, considerations in planning and implementation, selectivity and sustainability, information systems management, stratification of malarious areas by eco-epidemiological criteria, and priority geographical areas and risk groups. Indoor residual spraying, personal protection measures, larviciding and biological control, and environmental management are also discussed. The next section examines the role of vector control in malaria epidemics and drug-resistant malaria. Another section examines indicators of operational and entomological impact and of impact on disease and integrated use of control methods under the context of monitoring and evaluation of vector control efforts. Entomological parameters and techniques discussed include detection and monitoring of insecticide resistance, bioassays, adult density, resting indices, mosquito age and survival rates, human-vector contact, mosquito infection rates, entomological inoculation rate, and measurement of malaria transmission as well as choice of parameters and design for evaluating interventions. Other topics include the role of entomological services in malaria control, managerial aspects of malaria vector control and entomological services, comprehensive vector-borne disease control, capacity building, role of communities and other sectors in vector control, cost-effectiveness in vector control, research in vector control, and policy issues related to vector control.
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  24. 24
    148853

    Comments on "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Poverty Alleviation Programs," by Squire.

    Davis G

    In: Evaluation and development: proceedings of the 1994 World Bank conference, edited by Robert Picciotto and Ray C. Rist. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. 54-6. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)

    This article focuses on the nature of the questions that need to be asked in the evaluation of poverty programs, and on the role of participation in answering them. To answer some of the questions pertinent to the evaluation of poverty reduction projects requires knowing the reasons behind why people are poor. Poverty is caused by political, economic, or social factors, and each of these factors is important. Development takes place within a set of interrelationships that are mutually reinforcing and continually changing, and economic development cannot occur without corresponding changes in the political, institutional, and cultural norms of the countries involved. Hence, poverty programs cannot be evaluated unless the full spectrum of issues that contribute to the success of such programs are understood, and unless specific interventions are evaluated in their wider social and political context. Furthermore, participation, which is the involvement of beneficiaries and stakeholders in development efforts, should begin at the initial stage of the project. Participation at this stage improves the quality of information available for decision-making and strengthens stakeholders' commitment to monitoring and evaluation, while it enhances the sustainability of interventions by leaving behind the capacity, or social learning, needed to address such issues.
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  25. 25
    143643

    Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication -- African region, 1998 - April 1999.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]; World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Vaccines and Other Biologicals; United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. National Center for Infectious Diseases. Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases. Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch; United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. National Immunization Program. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Eradication Division

    MMWR. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT. 1999 Jun 25; 48(24):513-8.

    This report outlines progress toward polio eradication from 1998 through April 1999 in the African region (AFRO). WHO accelerated various strategies to annihilate poliomyelitis in the region of Africa. A highlight of supplementary vaccination activities [i.e., National Immunization Days (NIDs) and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance] was conducted in the region, and plans for program acceleration--such as intensified NIDs and mopping-up vaccinations to meet the 2000 eradication project--were developed. However, intense wild poliovirus transmission continued to occur in Angola, DR Congo, and western and central Africa. Thus, high-quality house-to-house vaccination campaigns were launched to help eliminate wild poliovirus transmission quickly in these parts of AFRO. Although civil conflict, economic decline, and the high burden of HIV-related diseases have strained public health infrastructures leading to a decline in routine vaccination coverage and low health staff morale in Africa, an intensely focused effort to eliminate the virus, if it is adequately supported, will allow WHO to achieve its goal of polio eradication by 2000.
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