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International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Feb; 96(2):147-150.The objective was to compare two World Health Organization (WHO) partographs -- a composite partograph including latent phase with a simplified one without the latent phase. Comparison of the two partographs in a crossover trial. Eighteen physicians participated in this trial. One or the other partograph was used in 658 parturients. The mean (S.D.) user-friendliness score was lower for the composite partograph (6.2 (0.9) vs. 8.6 (1.0); P = 0.002). Most participants (84%) experienced difficulty "sometimes" with the composite partograph, but no participant reported difficulty with the simplified partograph. While most maternal and perinatal outcomes were similar, labor values crossed the action line significantly more often when the composite partograph was used, and the women were more likely to undergo cesarean deliveries. The simplified WHO partograph was more user-friendly, was more to be completed than the composite partograph, and was associated with better labor outcomes. (author's)
Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Gender in Economic and Social Systems Project [GENESYS], 1994 Oct. , 48 p. (GENESYS Special Study No. 17; USAID Contract No. PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00)In order to reveal essential lessons learned about the process undertaken by major bilateral and multilateral donor agencies to institutionalize gender awareness in their organizational structure and programs and to define the scope of the remaining work in this area, this paper compares strategies of major agencies and assesses the degree to which these strategies have allowed the agencies to meet stated objectives. The first main section of the paper provides background information on the following issues: 1) the importance of recognizing women's dual productive and reproductive roles and of the concept of mainstreaming in the development of policies and plans of action; 2) the key structures and processes that enhance capacity for institutionalizing gender, including a commitment to raising awareness, the presence of a Women in Development (WID) office and/or staff, and WID training and research; 3) the process of incorporating gender issues into country programs and project cycles; 4) involving women in all stages of development programming; and 5) strategies for the future. The second section of the paper analyzes the institutionalization of gender issues into the development process funded by the bilateral donors (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US). Each analysis includes a look at the content and scope of the country's policy and plan of action, at organizational commitment to raising awareness, at efforts to build a knowledge base, at how gender issues are incorporated into programs and project cycles, and at efforts to bring women into the process. The same framework is applied to the consideration of multilateral donors (the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and the UN Development Programme) contained in the final section of the paper.