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  1. 1
    311697

    Campaigning with partners for the MDGs: a case study of Brazil.

    Dimitrova D; de Oliveira MC

    New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], [2005]. 14 p.

    The deepening of democratic institutions, gains in macroeconomic stability and rapid expansion of prosperity contribute to an overall encouraging context for sustainable development in Brazil. Yet, despite these numerous advances, real poverty has only moderately declined, and inequality persists. In Brazil, economic and social status tends to vary by geography, race and gender, a legacy of the country's history. Imposed and de facto colonial and post-colonial divisions among indigenous peoples and descendents of Portuguese settlers, African slaves and European, Middle Eastern and Asian immigrants created persistent structures of exclusion and inequality. In the 1950s, during the military government, a strategy of import substitution prioritized rapid industrial expansion, and helped to bring about significant, sustained economic growth. Benefits, however, accrued disproportionately to the upper classes at the expense of workers and unions. The industrialization contributed to the expansion of the favelas (urban slums), one of Brazil's greatest contemporary challenges, by promoting urban migration while infrastructure and social support did not expand at the same pace. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    193335
    Peer Reviewed

    Global efforts to eradicate polio.

    Krym VF; MacDonald RD

    CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2004 Jan 20; 170(2):189-190.

    As of Oct. 29, 2003, Nigeria gained the dubious honour of having the highest number of reported cases of polio (217 new cases) in the world, surpassing the previous leader, India. The resurgence of poliomyelitis in northern Nigeria poses a threat to neighbouring countries and further postpones the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) to eradicate the disease globally. This is by no means an impossible goal: humans are the only natural reservoir, an inexpensive and effective vaccine is available, immunity is life-long, and the virus can survive for only a very short time outside the human host. (excerpt)
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