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Private sector: Who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report. Summary of recommendations.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 12 p.This report presents five recommendations, which are addressed to governments, parliaments, the judiciary, the United Nations (UN) system, the UN Global Compact, the Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) partners, donors, civil society and the private sector itself. Recommendations include: 1) Access to services and the right to health. To achieve universal access to services and protect the health and related rights of women, children and adolescents, governments should regulate private as well as public sector providers. Parliaments should strengthen legislation and ensure oversight for its enforcement. The UHC2030 partnership should drive political leadership at the highest level to address private sector transparency and accountability. 2) The pharmaceutical industry and equitable access to medicines. To ensure equitable, affordable access to quality essential medicines and related health products for all women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should strengthen policies and regulation governing the pharmaceutical industry. 3) The food industry, obesity and NCDs. To tackle rising obesity and NCDs among women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should regulate the food and beverage industry, and adopt a binding global convention. Ministries of education and health should educate students and the public at large about diet and exercise, and set standards in school-based programmes. Related commitments should be included in the next G20 Summit agenda. 4) The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners. The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners should strengthen their monitoring and accountability standards for engagement of the business sector, with an emphasis on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. They should advocate for accountability of the for-profit sector to be put on the global agenda for achieving UHC and the SDGs, including at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development and the Health Summit. The UN H6 Partnership entities and the GFF should raise accountability standards in the country programmes they support. 5) Donors and business engagement in the SDGs. Development cooperation partners should ensure that transparency and accountability standards aligned with public health are applied throughout their engagement with the for-profit sector. They should invest in national regulatory and oversight capacities, and also regulate private sector actors headquartered in their countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 80 p.In line with the mandate from the UN Secretary-General, every year the IAP issues a report that provides an independent snapshot of progress on delivering promises to the world’s women, children and adolescents for their health and well-being. Recommendations are included on ways to help fast-track action to achieve the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health 2016-2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals - from the specific lens of accountability, of who is responsible for delivering on promises, to whom, and how. The theme of the IAP’s 2018 report is accountability of the private sector. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will not be achieved without the active and meaningful involvement of the private sector. Can the private sector be held accountable for protecting women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health? And if so, who is responsible for holding them to account, and what are the mechanisms for doing so? This report looks at three key areas of private sector engagement: health service delivery the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines the food industry and its significant influence on health and nutrition, with a focus NCDs and rising obesity.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 100 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual snapshot of the state of the world’s health. This 2018 edition contains the latest available data for 36 health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators. It also links to the three SDG-aligned strategic priorities of the WHO’s 13th General Programme of Work: achieving universal health coverage, addressing health emergencies and promoting healthier populations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 196 p.The World malaria report, published annually, provides a comprehensive update on global and regional malaria data and trends. The latest report, released on 29 November 2017, tracks investments in malaria programmes and research as well as progress across all intervention areas: prevention, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance. It also includes dedicated chapters on malaria elimination and on key threats in the fight against malaria. The report is based on information received from national malaria control programmes and other partners in endemic countries; most of the data presented is from 2016.
Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2017 Dec 22; 1-9.The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation in pregnancy has been implemented in select countries and emerging evidence suggests that MMN supplementation in pregnancy may provide additional benefits compared to IFA alone. In 2015, WHO, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the Micronutrient Initiative held a “Technical Consultation on MMN supplements in pregnancy: implementation considerations for successful incorporation into existing programmemes,” which included a call for indicators needed for monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance of MMN supplementation programs. Currently, global surveillance and monitoring data show that overall IFA supplementation programs suffer from low coverage and intake adherence, despite inclusion in national policies. Common barriers that limit the effectiveness of IFA-which also apply to MMN programs-include weak supply chains, low access to antenatal care services, low-quality behavior change interventions to support and motivate women, and weak or non-existent monitoring systems used for programme improvement. The causes of these barriers in a given country need careful review to resolve them. As countries heighten their focus on supplementation during pregnancy, or if they decide to initiate or transition into MMN supplementation, a priority is to identify key monitoring indicators to address these issues and support effective programs. National and global monitoring and surveillance data on IFA supplementation during pregnancy are primarily derived from cross-sectional surveys and, on a more routine basis, through health and logistics management information systems. Indicators for IFA supplementation exist; however, the new indicators for MMN supplementation need to be incorporated. We reviewed practice-based evidence, guided by the WHO/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention logic model for vitamin and mineral interventions in public health programs, and used existing manuals, published literature, country reports, and the opinion of experts, to identify monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance indicators for MMN supplementation programs. We also considered cross-cutting indicators that could be used across programme settings, as well as those specific to common delivery models, such as antenatal care services. We then described mechanisms for collecting these data, including integration within existing government monitoring systems, as well as other existing or proposed systems. Monitoring data needs at all stages of the programme lifecycle were considered, as well as the feasibility and cost of data collection. We also propose revisions to global-, national-, and subnational-surveillance indicators based on these reviews.
Global guidance on criteria and processes for validation: Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis. Second edition.
Geneva, Switzerland,WHO, 2017. 52 p.This second edition of the EMTCT global validation guidance document provides standardized processes and consensus-developed criteria to validate EMTCT of HIV and syphilis, and to recognize high-HIV burden countries that have made significant progress on the path to elimination. The guidance places strong emphasis on country-led accountability, rigorous analysis, intensive programme assessment and multilevel collaboration, including the involvement of communities of women living with HIV. It provides guidance to evaluate the country’s EMTCT programme, the quality and accuracy of its laboratory and data collection mechanisms, as well as its efforts to uphold human rights and equality of women living with HIV, and their involvement in decision-making processes.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 73 p.This tool for Monitoring human rights in contraceptive services and programmes contributes to the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) ongoing work on rights-based contraceptive programmes. This work builds directly on WHO’s 2014 Ensuring human rights within contraceptive programmes: a human rights analysis of existing quantitative indicators and the 2015 publication Ensuring human rights within contraceptive service delivery implementation guide by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and WHO. This tool is intended for use by countries to assist them in strengthening their human rights efforts in contraceptive programming. The tool uses existing commonly-used indicators to highlight areas where human rights have been promoted, neglected or violated in contraceptive programming; gaps in programming and in data collection; and opportunities for action within the health sector and beyond, including opportunities for partnership initiatives.
Programme reporting standards for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 32 p.Information about design, context, implementation, monitoring and evaluation is central to understanding the processes and impacts of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH) programmes, in support of effective replication and scale-up of these efforts. Existing reporting guidelines do not demand sufficient detail in the reporting of contextual and implementation issues. We have, therefore, developed programme reporting standards (PRS) to provide guidance for complete and accurate reporting on the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of SRMNCAH programmes. The PRS can be used by SRMNCAH programme implementers and researchers. The PRS can be used prospectively to guide the reporting of a programme throughout its life cycle, or retrospectively to describe what was done, when, where, how and by whom. The PRS is intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies. The PRS is intended for programme managers and other staff or practitioners who have designed, implemented and/or evaluated SRMNCAH programmes. It can be used by governmental and nongovernmental organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as by the private sector. The PRS is also intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies
Report 2017: Transformative accountability for adolescents: Accountability for health and human rights of women, children and adolescents in the 2030 agenda.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2017. 64 p.Adolescents, who number 1.2 billion, or 1 in 6 of the global population, are the key for progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Every year, 1.2 million adolescents die, often from preventable causes—such as violence, suicide, pregnancy-related complications among girls, HIV/AIDS, road injuries and drowning, as well as diseases and respiratory infections. As the report states, however, high impact, cost effective solutions to improve adolescent health can yield huge benefits and billions in savings that can place them on better tracks for life, reaping demographic dividends. The Independent Accountability Panel (IAP), under its mandate by the UN Secretary-General to assess progress on the 2016-2030 Global Strategy on Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health in the context of the SDGs from the specific lens of who is accountable to whom, and for what, launched its 2017 report. The IAP’s six recommendations are to: 1) Leverage Accountability to Achieve the Global Strategy and the SDGs, 2) Make adolescents visible and measure what matters, 3) Foster whole-of-government accountability to adolescents, 4) Make universal health coverage work for adolescents, 5) Boost accountability for investments, including for adolescent health and well-being, and 6) Unleash the power of young people, by meaningfully engaging them in decision-making, and empowering them to seize the full potential of the digital age.
Using the international human rights system to protect and promote the rights of women migrant workers.
New York, New York, UN Women, . 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 6)This Brief provides an overview of the international human rights system as it applies to the promotion and protection of women migrant workers’ rights. Using examples from UN Women’s joint EU-funded project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" (the Project), which is anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines, this Brief illustrates how these mechanisms can be used by governments, civil society and development partners, to enhance the rights of women migrant workers in law and practice.
The evaluation of comprehensive sexuality education programmes: a focus on the gender and empowerment outcomes.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015. 64 p.Repeated evaluations have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education does not foster earlier sexual debut or unsafe sexual activity. By contrast, programmes that teach only abstinence have not proved to be effective. Additionally, recent research demonstrates that gender norms are a “gateway factor” for a range of adolescent health outcomes. Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that emphasize critical thinking about gender and power – the empowerment approach – are far more effective than conventional “gender-blind” programmes at reducing rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended early pregnancy. These studies also indicate that young people who adopt more egalitarian attitudes about gender roles, compared to their peers, are more likely to delay sexual debut, use condoms and practise contraception. They are also less likely to be in relationships characterized by violence. This report, The Evaluation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programmes: A Focus on the Gender and Empowerment Outcomes, represents an important milestone in our understanding of advances in the field of comprehensive sexuality education evaluation. It offers an extensive review and analysis of a wide range of evaluation studies of different comprehensive sexuality education programmes, at different stages of development and from different contexts and setting across the globe. It enriches our knowledge of new methodologies, available questionnaires and instruments that can be applied in future assessments and evaluations, most particularly to measure the gender empowerment outcome of comprehensive sexuality education programmes. It addresses the adaptation of the methodology to various contexts and age-specific groups of young people and children. This report is co-sponsored by UNFPA, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
Accelerating change by the numbers. 2016 annual report of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting: Accelerating change.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017 Jul. 92 p.The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives. This main document, "By the Numbers," analyses progress in quantitative terms, using the Results Framework as a basis. It provides an account of how the budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries (excepting Yemen). The profiles present facts on the national context, summarize key achievements, and share operational and financial information.
Geneva, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 114 p.This report presents the first ever estimates of the population using ‘safely managed’ drinking water and sanitation services – meaning drinking water free from contamination that is available at home when needed, and toilets whereby excreta are treated and disposed of safely. It also documents progress towards ending open defecation and achieving universal access to basic services. The report identifies a number of critical data gaps that will need to be addressed in order to enable systematic monitoring of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets and to realize the commitment to ‘leave no one behind’.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2014 Nov. 8 p.This publication outlines how, following the London Summit on Family Planning in 2012, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has worked to engage governments, with the aim of building a conducive environment to reach the most vulnerable groups, no matter how remote their location, in order to reach the key goal of ensuring 120 million more women have access to family planning by 2020.
PLoS Medicine. 2017 Jun; 14(6):e1002328.Melanie Taylor and colleagues discuss global initiatives for surveillance of sexually transmitted diseases.
Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
Lancet. 2017; 390:324-332.In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage. We highlight three major trends in global health governance more broadly that relate to this development: towards more discretionary funding and away from core or longer-term funding; towards defined multi-stakeholder governance and away from traditional government-centred representation and decision-making; and towards narrower mandates or problem-focused vertical initiatives and away from broader systemic goals.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2017. 116 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2017 compiles data on 21 health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets, with 35 indicators, as well as data on life expectancy. This edition also includes, for the first time, success stories from several countries that are making progress towards the health-related SDG targets.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 56 p.The WHO Guidelines on Ethical Issues in Public Health Surveillance is the first international framework of its kind, it fills an important gap. The goal of the guideline development project was to help policymakers and practitioners navigate the ethical issues presented by public health surveillance. This document outlines 17 ethical guidelines that can assist everyone involved in public health surveillance, including officials in government agencies, health workers, NGOs and the private sector. Surveillance, when conducted ethically, is the foundation for programs to promote human well-being at the population level. It can contribute to reducing inequalities: pockets of suffering that are unfair, unjust and preventable cannot be addressed if they are not first made visible. But surveillance is not without risks for participants and sometimes poses ethical dilemmas. Issues about privacy, autonomy, equity, and the common good need to be considered and balanced, and knowing how to do so can be challenging in practice.
2016 Nov; New York, New York, UN Women, 2016 Nov. 2 p.Violence against women and girls is one of the most universal and pervasive human rights violations in the world, of pandemic proportions, with country data showing that about one third of women in the world report experiencing physical or sexual violence at some point in their lifetime, mainly by their partners. UN Women provides knowledge-based policy and programming guidance to a diverse array of stakeholders at international, regional and country levels often partnering with other UN agencies and stakeholders. UN Women’s work is broadly focused on a comprehensive approach to ending violence against women and girls that addresses legislation and policies, prevention, services for survivors, research and data. The briefs included in this package aim to summarize in a concise and friendly way, for advocates, programmers and policy makers, the essential strategies for addressing violence against women in general, for preventing violence and providing services to survivors in particular.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 186 p.The World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Malaria Report 2016 reveals that children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa have greater access to effective malaria control. Across the region, a steep increase in diagnostic testing for children and preventive treatment for pregnant women has been reported over the last five years. Among all populations at risk of malaria, the use of insecticide-treated nets has expanded rapidly. But in many countries in the region, substantial gaps in programme coverage remain. Funding shortfalls and fragile health systems are undermining overall progress, jeopardizing the attainment of global targets.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2017 Jan. 18 p. (Working Paper WP-17-171; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)In 2011, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) published its Evaluation Policy. The policy emphasizes the need to conduct more evaluations of its programs to ensure greater accountability and learning, and it outlines best practices and requirements for conducting evaluations. Since releasing the policy, USAID has commissioned an increasing number of evaluations of its programs. The importance of evaluations for international public health programs has been long recognized, with demand for such evaluations coming from both internal and external sources. Donors or those external to program implementation seek evidence of accomplishments and accountability for resources spent, whereas those involved in program implementation seek evidence to inform and improve program design. Within USAID, the need for more evaluations was driven by the understanding that evaluations provide information and analysis that prevent mistakes from being repeated and increase the likelihood of greater yield from future investments. Finally, there is overall recognition that evaluations should be of high quality and driven by demand, and that results should be communicated to relevant stakeholders. Despite the increased demand for evaluations, there is limited evaluation capacity in many countries where international development programs are implemented. Before strategies to strengthen evaluation capacity can be implemented, it is important first to assess existing evaluation capacity and develop action plans accordingly. We conducted a review of existing assessment tools and guidance documents related to assessing organizations’ capacity to carry out evaluations of international public health programs in order to determine the adequacy of those materials. Here, we summarize the key findings of our review of the literature and provide recommendations for the development of future tools and guidance documents.
Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016 2030): Adolescents’ health. Report by the Secretariat.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Dec 5. 6 p. (EB140/34)Pursuant to resolution WHA69.2 this report provides an update on the current status of women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. It is aligned with the report on the Progress in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (document EB140/32). The Secretariat in its regular reporting on progress towards women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health will choose a particular theme each year, focusing on priorities identified by Member States and topics for which there is new evidence to support country-led plans. For reporting to the Seventieth World Health Assembly, adolescent's health is the theme. (Excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2016 Dec 15. 138 p.This is the first draft of the Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!): Implementation guidance . This consultation aims to gather input from a wide range of stakeholders to inform the development of the guidance. Key messages include: 1. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) make up one-sixth of the world’s population and are extremely diverse, but share key developmental experiences, such as rapid physical growth, hormonal changes, sexual development, new and complex emotions, and an increase in intellectual capacities. 2. Adolescent health is affected by positive physical, neurological, and psychosocial development, as well as a diverse array of possible burdens, including unintentional injury, interpersonal violence, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) concerns, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and mental health issues. 3. In addition, numerous important risk factors for health problems start or are consolidated during adolescence and may continue over the life course, such as tobacco use, inadequate nutrition, physical inactivity, and alcohol and drug use. 4. There are strong demographic, public health, economic, and human rights reasons to invest in the health and the development of adolescents. For example, investing in adolescent health will benefit adolescents now, adolescents in their future lives, and also the next generation. 5. Three critical, overarching concepts in adolescent health programming are universal health coverage, quality of care, and positive development. 6. The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) takes a life-course approach that aims for the highest attainable standards of health and wellbeing -- physical, mental, and social -- at every age. It identifies 27 evidence-based adolescent health interventions. 7. The Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!) implementation guidance document has been developed to support the Global Strategy and to provide countries with a basis for developing a coherent national plan for the health of adolescents. Specifically: Section 2 reviews adolescent positive development and major disease burdens; Section 3 describes the 27 Global Strategy adolescent health interventions in detail; Section 4 outlines how a country can prioritize health interventions for its particular adolescent population; Section 5 describes important aspects of successful national adolescent health programming; and Section 6 reviews adolescent health monitoring, evaluation, and research guidelines and priorities.
Lancet. 2016 May 14; 387(10032):2060-2.Add to my documents.
Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], 2016. 57 p.This compendium has been designed to support officers responsible for designing nutrition-sensitive food and agriculture investments, in selecting appropriate indicators to monitor if these investments are having an impact on nutrition (positive or negative) and if so, through which pathways. It provides an overview of indicators that can be relevant as part of a nutrition-sensitive approach, together with guidance to inform the selection of indicators. The purpose of this compendium is to provide a current compilation of indicators that may be measured for identified outcomes of nutrition-sensitive investments. This compendium does not provide detailed guidance on how to collect a given indicator but points to relevant guidance materials. This compendium does not represent official FAO recommendations for specific indicators or methodologies. It is intended only to provide information on the indicators, methodologies and constructs that may be relevant to consider in the monitoring and evaluation of nutrition-sensitive agriculture investments. It is not envisaged that a single project should collect data on all the indicators presented here. The selection will be informed by the type of intervention implemented, the anticipated intermediary outcomes and nutritional outcomes, as well as the feasibility of data collection in view of available resources and other constraints. The advice of M&E experts and subject matter specialists, should be sought in making the final choice of indicators and in planning the data collection and analysis, including sampling and design of questionnaires. This compendium deals with programmes, projects and investments. While some indicators may be relevant for routine monitoring at national scale, this document does not cover every indicator that would be needed to monitor nutrition sensitivity of policies. (Excerpt)