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Private sector: Who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report. Summary of recommendations.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 12 p.This report presents five recommendations, which are addressed to governments, parliaments, the judiciary, the United Nations (UN) system, the UN Global Compact, the Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) partners, donors, civil society and the private sector itself. Recommendations include: 1) Access to services and the right to health. To achieve universal access to services and protect the health and related rights of women, children and adolescents, governments should regulate private as well as public sector providers. Parliaments should strengthen legislation and ensure oversight for its enforcement. The UHC2030 partnership should drive political leadership at the highest level to address private sector transparency and accountability. 2) The pharmaceutical industry and equitable access to medicines. To ensure equitable, affordable access to quality essential medicines and related health products for all women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should strengthen policies and regulation governing the pharmaceutical industry. 3) The food industry, obesity and NCDs. To tackle rising obesity and NCDs among women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should regulate the food and beverage industry, and adopt a binding global convention. Ministries of education and health should educate students and the public at large about diet and exercise, and set standards in school-based programmes. Related commitments should be included in the next G20 Summit agenda. 4) The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners. The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners should strengthen their monitoring and accountability standards for engagement of the business sector, with an emphasis on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. They should advocate for accountability of the for-profit sector to be put on the global agenda for achieving UHC and the SDGs, including at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development and the Health Summit. The UN H6 Partnership entities and the GFF should raise accountability standards in the country programmes they support. 5) Donors and business engagement in the SDGs. Development cooperation partners should ensure that transparency and accountability standards aligned with public health are applied throughout their engagement with the for-profit sector. They should invest in national regulatory and oversight capacities, and also regulate private sector actors headquartered in their countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 80 p.In line with the mandate from the UN Secretary-General, every year the IAP issues a report that provides an independent snapshot of progress on delivering promises to the world’s women, children and adolescents for their health and well-being. Recommendations are included on ways to help fast-track action to achieve the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health 2016-2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals - from the specific lens of accountability, of who is responsible for delivering on promises, to whom, and how. The theme of the IAP’s 2018 report is accountability of the private sector. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will not be achieved without the active and meaningful involvement of the private sector. Can the private sector be held accountable for protecting women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health? And if so, who is responsible for holding them to account, and what are the mechanisms for doing so? This report looks at three key areas of private sector engagement: health service delivery the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines the food industry and its significant influence on health and nutrition, with a focus NCDs and rising obesity.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 100 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual snapshot of the state of the world’s health. This 2018 edition contains the latest available data for 36 health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators. It also links to the three SDG-aligned strategic priorities of the WHO’s 13th General Programme of Work: achieving universal health coverage, addressing health emergencies and promoting healthier populations.
Parents as partners in adolescent HIV prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa: an evaluation of the current United Nations' approach.
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2016 Nov 10; 30(2)The United Nations's (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) include the target (3.3) of ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030. A major challenge in this regard is to curb the incidence of HIV among adolescents, the number two cause of their death in Africa. In Eastern and Southern Africa, they are mainly infected through heterosexual transmission. Research findings about parental influence on the sexual behavior of their adolescent children are reviewed and findings indicate that parental communication, monitoring and connectedness contribute to the avoidance of risky sexual behavior in adolescents. This article evaluates the extent to which these three dimensions of parenting have been factored in to current HIV prevention recommendations relating to adolescent boys and girls. Four pertinent UN reports are analyzed and the results used to demonstrate that the positive role of parents or primary caregivers vis-a-vis risky sexual behavior has tendentially been back-grounded or even potentially undermined. A more explicit inclusion of parents in adolescent HIV prevention policy and practice is essential - obstacles notwithstanding - enabling their indispensable partnership towards ending an epidemic mostly driven by sexual risk behavior. Evidence from successful or promising projects is included to illustrate the practical feasibility and fruitfulness of this approach.
AIDS and Behavior. 2017 Jul; 21(Suppl 1):62-71.BACKGROUND: Nigeria accounts for 9% of the global HIV burden and is a signatory to Millennium Development Goals as well as the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. This paper reviews maturation of her HIV M&E system and preparedness for monitoring of the post-2015 agenda. METHODS: Using the UNAIDS criteria for assessing a functional M&E system, a mixed-methods approach of desk review and expert consultations, was employed. RESULTS: Following adoption of a multi-sectoral M&E system, Nigeria experienced improved HIV coordination at the National and State levels, capacity building for epidemic appraisals, spectrum estimation and routine data quality assessments. National data and systems audit processes were instituted which informed harmonization of tools and indicators. The M&E achievements of the HIV response enhanced performance of the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS) using DHIS2 platform following its re-introduction by the Federal Ministry of Health, and also enabled decentralization of data management to the periphery. CONCLUSION: A decade of implementing National HIV M&E framework in Nigeria and the recent adoption of the DHIS2 provides a strong base for monitoring the Post 2015 agenda. There is however a need to strengthen inter-sectoral data linkages and reduce the rising burden of data collection at the global level.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 196 p.The World malaria report, published annually, provides a comprehensive update on global and regional malaria data and trends. The latest report, released on 29 November 2017, tracks investments in malaria programmes and research as well as progress across all intervention areas: prevention, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance. It also includes dedicated chapters on malaria elimination and on key threats in the fight against malaria. The report is based on information received from national malaria control programmes and other partners in endemic countries; most of the data presented is from 2016.
Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2017 Dec 22; 1-9.The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation in pregnancy has been implemented in select countries and emerging evidence suggests that MMN supplementation in pregnancy may provide additional benefits compared to IFA alone. In 2015, WHO, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the Micronutrient Initiative held a “Technical Consultation on MMN supplements in pregnancy: implementation considerations for successful incorporation into existing programmemes,” which included a call for indicators needed for monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance of MMN supplementation programs. Currently, global surveillance and monitoring data show that overall IFA supplementation programs suffer from low coverage and intake adherence, despite inclusion in national policies. Common barriers that limit the effectiveness of IFA-which also apply to MMN programs-include weak supply chains, low access to antenatal care services, low-quality behavior change interventions to support and motivate women, and weak or non-existent monitoring systems used for programme improvement. The causes of these barriers in a given country need careful review to resolve them. As countries heighten their focus on supplementation during pregnancy, or if they decide to initiate or transition into MMN supplementation, a priority is to identify key monitoring indicators to address these issues and support effective programs. National and global monitoring and surveillance data on IFA supplementation during pregnancy are primarily derived from cross-sectional surveys and, on a more routine basis, through health and logistics management information systems. Indicators for IFA supplementation exist; however, the new indicators for MMN supplementation need to be incorporated. We reviewed practice-based evidence, guided by the WHO/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention logic model for vitamin and mineral interventions in public health programs, and used existing manuals, published literature, country reports, and the opinion of experts, to identify monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance indicators for MMN supplementation programs. We also considered cross-cutting indicators that could be used across programme settings, as well as those specific to common delivery models, such as antenatal care services. We then described mechanisms for collecting these data, including integration within existing government monitoring systems, as well as other existing or proposed systems. Monitoring data needs at all stages of the programme lifecycle were considered, as well as the feasibility and cost of data collection. We also propose revisions to global-, national-, and subnational-surveillance indicators based on these reviews.
Optimal feeding of low-birthweight infants in low- and middle-income countries: highlights from the World Health Organization 2011 guidelines.
[Washington, D.C.], MCSP, 2017 Jun. 6 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This brief presents the updated WHO Guidelines on Optimal Feeding of Low Birth-Weight Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, and highlights changes and best practices for optimal feeding of LBW infants. It is intended to assist policymakers, program managers, educators, and health care providers involved in caring for LBW infants to put the recommendations into action. It is hoped that such actions will contribute to improving the quality of care for LBW infants, thereby reducing LBW mortality and improving health outcomes for this group.
Global guidance on criteria and processes for validation: Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis. Second edition.
Geneva, Switzerland,WHO, 2017. 52 p.This second edition of the EMTCT global validation guidance document provides standardized processes and consensus-developed criteria to validate EMTCT of HIV and syphilis, and to recognize high-HIV burden countries that have made significant progress on the path to elimination. The guidance places strong emphasis on country-led accountability, rigorous analysis, intensive programme assessment and multilevel collaboration, including the involvement of communities of women living with HIV. It provides guidance to evaluate the country’s EMTCT programme, the quality and accuracy of its laboratory and data collection mechanisms, as well as its efforts to uphold human rights and equality of women living with HIV, and their involvement in decision-making processes.
The relative roles of ANC and EPI in the continuous distribution of LLINs: a qualitative study in four countries.
Health Policy and Planning. 2017 May 1; 32(4):467-475.Background: The continuous distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention, through the antenatal care (ANC) and the Expanded Programme on Immunizations (EPI), is recommended by the WHO to improve and maintain LLIN coverage. Despite these recommendations, little is known about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ANC and EPI-based LLIN distribution. This study aimed to explore and compare the roles of the ANC and EPI for LLIN distribution in four African countries. Methods: In a qualitative evaluation of continuous distribution through the ANC and EPI, semi-structured, individual and group interviews were conducted in Kenya, Malawi, Mali, and Rwanda. Respondents included national, sub-national, and facility-level health staff, and were selected to capture a range of roles related to malaria, ANC and EPI programmes. Policies, guidelines, and data collection tools were reviewed as a means of triangulation to assess the structure of LLIN distribution, and the methods of data collection and reporting for malaria, ANC and EPI programmes. Results: In the four countries visited, distribution of LLINs was more effectively integrated through ANC than through EPI because of a) stronger linkages and involvement between malaria and reproductive health programmes, as compared to malaria and EPI, and b) more complete programme monitoring for ANC-based distribution, compared to EPI-based distribution. Conclusions: Opportunities for improving the distribution of LLINs through these channels exist, especially in the case of EPI. For both ANC and EPI, integrated distribution of LLINs has the potential to act as an incentive, improving the already strong coverage of both these essential services. The collection and reporting of data on LLINs distributed through the ANC and EPI can provide insight into the performance of LLIN distribution within these programmes. Greater attention to data collection and use, by both the global malaria community, and the integrated programmes, can improve this distribution channel strength and effectiveness.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 73 p.This tool for Monitoring human rights in contraceptive services and programmes contributes to the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) ongoing work on rights-based contraceptive programmes. This work builds directly on WHO’s 2014 Ensuring human rights within contraceptive programmes: a human rights analysis of existing quantitative indicators and the 2015 publication Ensuring human rights within contraceptive service delivery implementation guide by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and WHO. This tool is intended for use by countries to assist them in strengthening their human rights efforts in contraceptive programming. The tool uses existing commonly-used indicators to highlight areas where human rights have been promoted, neglected or violated in contraceptive programming; gaps in programming and in data collection; and opportunities for action within the health sector and beyond, including opportunities for partnership initiatives.
Programme reporting standards for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 32 p.Information about design, context, implementation, monitoring and evaluation is central to understanding the processes and impacts of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH) programmes, in support of effective replication and scale-up of these efforts. Existing reporting guidelines do not demand sufficient detail in the reporting of contextual and implementation issues. We have, therefore, developed programme reporting standards (PRS) to provide guidance for complete and accurate reporting on the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of SRMNCAH programmes. The PRS can be used by SRMNCAH programme implementers and researchers. The PRS can be used prospectively to guide the reporting of a programme throughout its life cycle, or retrospectively to describe what was done, when, where, how and by whom. The PRS is intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies. The PRS is intended for programme managers and other staff or practitioners who have designed, implemented and/or evaluated SRMNCAH programmes. It can be used by governmental and nongovernmental organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as by the private sector. The PRS is also intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies
Report 2017: Transformative accountability for adolescents: Accountability for health and human rights of women, children and adolescents in the 2030 agenda.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2017. 64 p.Adolescents, who number 1.2 billion, or 1 in 6 of the global population, are the key for progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Every year, 1.2 million adolescents die, often from preventable causes—such as violence, suicide, pregnancy-related complications among girls, HIV/AIDS, road injuries and drowning, as well as diseases and respiratory infections. As the report states, however, high impact, cost effective solutions to improve adolescent health can yield huge benefits and billions in savings that can place them on better tracks for life, reaping demographic dividends. The Independent Accountability Panel (IAP), under its mandate by the UN Secretary-General to assess progress on the 2016-2030 Global Strategy on Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health in the context of the SDGs from the specific lens of who is accountable to whom, and for what, launched its 2017 report. The IAP’s six recommendations are to: 1) Leverage Accountability to Achieve the Global Strategy and the SDGs, 2) Make adolescents visible and measure what matters, 3) Foster whole-of-government accountability to adolescents, 4) Make universal health coverage work for adolescents, 5) Boost accountability for investments, including for adolescent health and well-being, and 6) Unleash the power of young people, by meaningfully engaging them in decision-making, and empowering them to seize the full potential of the digital age.
Using the international human rights system to protect and promote the rights of women migrant workers.
New York, New York, UN Women, . 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 6)This Brief provides an overview of the international human rights system as it applies to the promotion and protection of women migrant workers’ rights. Using examples from UN Women’s joint EU-funded project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" (the Project), which is anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines, this Brief illustrates how these mechanisms can be used by governments, civil society and development partners, to enhance the rights of women migrant workers in law and practice.
The evaluation of comprehensive sexuality education programmes: a focus on the gender and empowerment outcomes.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015. 64 p.Repeated evaluations have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education does not foster earlier sexual debut or unsafe sexual activity. By contrast, programmes that teach only abstinence have not proved to be effective. Additionally, recent research demonstrates that gender norms are a “gateway factor” for a range of adolescent health outcomes. Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that emphasize critical thinking about gender and power – the empowerment approach – are far more effective than conventional “gender-blind” programmes at reducing rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended early pregnancy. These studies also indicate that young people who adopt more egalitarian attitudes about gender roles, compared to their peers, are more likely to delay sexual debut, use condoms and practise contraception. They are also less likely to be in relationships characterized by violence. This report, The Evaluation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programmes: A Focus on the Gender and Empowerment Outcomes, represents an important milestone in our understanding of advances in the field of comprehensive sexuality education evaluation. It offers an extensive review and analysis of a wide range of evaluation studies of different comprehensive sexuality education programmes, at different stages of development and from different contexts and setting across the globe. It enriches our knowledge of new methodologies, available questionnaires and instruments that can be applied in future assessments and evaluations, most particularly to measure the gender empowerment outcome of comprehensive sexuality education programmes. It addresses the adaptation of the methodology to various contexts and age-specific groups of young people and children. This report is co-sponsored by UNFPA, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
Accelerating change by the numbers. 2016 annual report of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting: Accelerating change.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017 Jul. 92 p.The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives. This main document, "By the Numbers," analyses progress in quantitative terms, using the Results Framework as a basis. It provides an account of how the budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries (excepting Yemen). The profiles present facts on the national context, summarize key achievements, and share operational and financial information.
Geneva, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 114 p.This report presents the first ever estimates of the population using ‘safely managed’ drinking water and sanitation services – meaning drinking water free from contamination that is available at home when needed, and toilets whereby excreta are treated and disposed of safely. It also documents progress towards ending open defecation and achieving universal access to basic services. The report identifies a number of critical data gaps that will need to be addressed in order to enable systematic monitoring of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets and to realize the commitment to ‘leave no one behind’.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2014 Nov. 8 p.This publication outlines how, following the London Summit on Family Planning in 2012, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has worked to engage governments, with the aim of building a conducive environment to reach the most vulnerable groups, no matter how remote their location, in order to reach the key goal of ensuring 120 million more women have access to family planning by 2020.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Sep. 2 p.To hold the government to account for its FP2020 commitments, the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) developed a monitoring and accountability tool, called the FP annual score card, in collaboration with local partners. The score card measures the government’s annual performance against their commitments, using indicators such as ‘demand generated for FP’, ‘financing’ and ‘access to services’. The score card helps advocates to identify what the government has delivered to date and what it should be delivering, based on a trajectory towards 2020. Family planning organizations and champions, national and international, use the results in their advocacy messaging and monitoring.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Mar. 36 p. (CGD Policy Paper 077)This paper seeks to determine the degree to which a gender lens has been incorporated into World Bank projects and the success of individual projects according to gender equality-related indicators. We first examine the World Bank’s internal scoring of projects based on whether they encompass gender analysis, action, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) components, as well as project development objective indicators and outcomes according to these indicators. We conclude that when indicators are defined, targets are specified, and outcomes are published, gender equality-related results appear largely positive. However, many projects (even those possessing a gender “theme” and perfect scores for the inclusion of gender analysis, action, and M&E components) lack gender-related indicators, and when such indicators are present, they often lack specified target goals. The paper concludes with a recommendation for increased transparency in gender-related project data (including data on the funding of gender equality-related components of projects) from donor institutions and a call for an increased number of gender-related indicators and targets in donor projects.
PLoS Medicine. 2017 Jun; 14(6):e1002328.Melanie Taylor and colleagues discuss global initiatives for surveillance of sexually transmitted diseases.
Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
Lancet. 2017; 390:324-332.In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage. We highlight three major trends in global health governance more broadly that relate to this development: towards more discretionary funding and away from core or longer-term funding; towards defined multi-stakeholder governance and away from traditional government-centred representation and decision-making; and towards narrower mandates or problem-focused vertical initiatives and away from broader systemic goals.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015. 124 p.The report delivers both promising and disappointing messages about the situation in low- and middle-income countries. Within-country inequalities have narrowed, with a tendency for national improvements driven by faster improvements in disadvantaged subgroups. However, inequalities still persist in most reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health indicators. The extent of within-country inequality differed by dimension of inequality and by country, country income group and geographical region. There is still much progress to be made in reducing inequalities in RMNCH.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2017. 116 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2017 compiles data on 21 health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets, with 35 indicators, as well as data on life expectancy. This edition also includes, for the first time, success stories from several countries that are making progress towards the health-related SDG targets.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 56 p.The WHO Guidelines on Ethical Issues in Public Health Surveillance is the first international framework of its kind, it fills an important gap. The goal of the guideline development project was to help policymakers and practitioners navigate the ethical issues presented by public health surveillance. This document outlines 17 ethical guidelines that can assist everyone involved in public health surveillance, including officials in government agencies, health workers, NGOs and the private sector. Surveillance, when conducted ethically, is the foundation for programs to promote human well-being at the population level. It can contribute to reducing inequalities: pockets of suffering that are unfair, unjust and preventable cannot be addressed if they are not first made visible. But surveillance is not without risks for participants and sometimes poses ethical dilemmas. Issues about privacy, autonomy, equity, and the common good need to be considered and balanced, and knowing how to do so can be challenging in practice.