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  1. 1

    [Consensus declaration on the World Health Organization [WHO] / UNICEF consultation on HIV transmission and breast feeding] Declaration de consensus a l'issue de la consultation OMS / UNICEF sur la transmission du VIH et l'allaitement au sein.


    In 1992, WHO and UNICEF held a Conference on HIV Transmission and Breast Feeding to review available information on the risk of HIV transmission via breast milk and to formulate recommendations on breast feeding. In all populations, regardless of the HIV infection rate, one must continue to defend, promote, and protect breast feeding. Where infection and malnutrition are the main causes of death among newborns, the risk of death linked to these infections is especially high among newborns who are not breast fed. Under conditions where the infant is less likely to contract HIV infection by breast milk than die of other causes, it is best to breast feed. If women under these conditions have access to other infant feeding methods, it is necessary to offer them the option of an HIV test while respecting confidentiality. When infectious diseases are not the main causes of death, HIV infected pregnant woman should be advised to use breast milk substitutes. Pregnant women of unknown HIV status should be advised to undergo an HIV test before delivery. Pressure from manufacturers should not influence HIV infected mothers in their choice of artificial feeding, as stated in the International Code on the Commercialization of Breast Milk Substitutes. HIV-related counseling should aim to help HIV infected adults address infant feeding methods, the risk of HIV transmission to children if the woman becomes pregnant, and the risk of HIV transmission at the time of sexual relations and via blood. All HIV positive adults who wish to avoid pregnancy should use family planning services and information. In all countries, the first priority to prevent vertical HIV transmission is prevention of HIV infection in women of reproductive age. Women must be taught how to protect themselves from HIV infection. Society must grant them the means to easily procure condoms and assure prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.
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  2. 2

    Training course on code implementation.

    Allain A; de Arango R

    MOTHERS AND CHILDREN. 1992; 11(3):6-7.

    The International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN) is a coalition of over 40 citizen groups in 70 countries. IBFAN monitors the progress worldwide of the implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Code is intended to regulate the advertising and promotional techniques used to sell infant formula. The 1991 IBFAN report shows that 75 countries have taken some action to implement the International Code. During 1992, the IBFAN Code Documentation Center in Malaysia conducted 2 training courses to help countries draft legislation to implement and monitor compliance with the International Code. In April, government officials from 19 Asian and African countries attended the first course in Malaysia; the second course was conducted in Spanish in Guatemala and attended by officials from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries. The resource people included representatives from NGOs in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and North America with experience in Code implementation and monitoring at the national level. The main purpose of each course was to train government officials to use the International Code as a starting point for national legislation to protect breastfeeding. Participants reviewed recent information on lactation management, the advantages of breastfeeding, current trends in breastfeeding and the marketing practices of infant formula manufacturers. The participants studied the terminology contained in the International Code and terminology used by infant formula manufacturers to include breastmilk supplements such as follow-on formulas and cereal-based baby foods. Relevant World Health Assembly resolutions such as the one adopted in 1986 on the need to ban free and low-cost supplies to hospitals were examined. The legal aspects of the current Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the progress in the 12 BFHI test countries concerning the elimination of supplies were also examined. International Labor Organization conventions on maternity legislation also need to be implemented to support breastfeeding.
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