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  1. 1
    322367

    Home-modified animal milk for replacement feeding: Is it feasible and safe?

    Briend A

    [Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. 9 p.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the nutritional aspects of feeding home-modified milk. This paper focuses only on non-breastfed children aged 0 to 6 months with no access to infant formula. Feeding older non-breastfed infants is described in another WHO document. Other problems, including the risk of dilution error when modifying the milk, the risk of bacterial contamination, and the risk that it will cause occult bleeding in the gut if not adequately boiled are acknowledged, but will not be discussed here. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    308483
    Peer Reviewed

    Infant feeding and HIV: avoiding transmission is not enough.

    Rollins NC

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2007 Mar 10; 334(7592):487-488.

    Recently, the World Health Organization updated its recommendations of 2000 on infant feeding in the context of HIV. At that time, data had just been published quantifying the risk of infection through breast feeding so avoiding breast feeding was acknowledged as the only effective way of avoiding transmission. WHO had also just published a meta-analysis of the mortality risks of not breast feeding, but in non-HIV infected populations. Considerations of these data resulted in the statement that, "When replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, avoidance of all breastfeeding by HIV-infected mothers is recommended." Since the 2000 recommendations, the main emphasis of most national programmes aimed at preventing mother to child transmission of HIV has been to avert transmission of HIV in young infants. The most difficult challenge has been how to make breast feeding safer in communities with a high prevalence of HIV where breast feeding is the traditional mode of feeding. Remarkably, the dilemma of infant feeding and HIV has split scientific communities and programme managers into opposing camps. Even with the risk of HIV transmission, some maintain that breast feeding may still be the best option for many mothers infected with HIV because of its anti-infective and nutritional advantages. Others promote commercial infant formula, arguing that the risks of diarrhoea and malnutrition associated with formula feeding are lower in most urban communities, or that the risks of not breast feeding may not be as great for infants born to mothers infected with HIV who, to prevent transmission, choose to give formula milk from birth; it has been suggested that this active decision making and motivation may result in safer preparation and use of formula milk. (excerpt)
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