Your search found 55 Results

  1. 1

    Safer women, safer world: a fund to increase the number of women UN Peacekeepers and better protect women and girls in conflict situations.

    Kenny C

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2017 Jun. 4 p. (Center for Global Development Brief)

    Having more women peacekeepers is linked with large reductions in sexual misconduct by peacekeepers and more sustainable peace. The UN could potentially raise the proportion of women peacekeepers to 20 percent for around $75 million. A small multilateral trust fund would offer supplementary payments to troop-contributing countries for each woman peacekeeper provided.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.

    Harrington C

    Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 2011 Apr; 52(1):29-41.

    This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs 'knowledge networks' to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste.
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  3. 3

    Situation of human rights in Afghanistan. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2003/77.

    United Nations. Commission on Human Rights

    [Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2003. 4 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2003/77)

    Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and accepted humanitarian rules, as set forth in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto. Reaffirming that all Member States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and to fulfil the obligations they have freely undertaken under the various international instruments. Recalling that Afghanistan is a party to several international human rights instruments and has obligations to report on their implementation. Recalling also the relevant resolutions and decisions of the Commission on Human Rights, the relevant resolutions and presidential statements of the Security Council, the reports of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict (S/2002/1299) and on women, peace and security (S/2002/1154) and the most recent resolution adopted by the Commission on the Status of Women. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexual violence increasing in Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Wakabi W

    Lancet. 2008 Jan; 371(9605):15-16.

    As fighting flares up in the Democratic Republic of Congo, health workers are reporting a rise in brutal sexual violence against women. But, says Wairagala Wakabi, the international community continues to pay only lip service to the crisis in the central African country. Medical workers are concerned about rising incidents of sexual brutality against women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which are resulting in mounting rates of trauma, fistula, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Although cases of sexual violence against women have been widespread in eastern DRC over the past decade, humanitarian workers say rape is becoming more violent and more common, yet the world continues to pay only lip service to the crisis in the central African country. Reports of gang rapes, sexual slavery, purposeful mutilation of women's genitalia, and killings of rape victims are commonplace in eastern Congo, especially in the north Kivu province, where fighting has subsisted for years. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    AIDS fighter. Liberia.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women [OSAGI]

    New York, New York, OSAGI, [2004]. [2] p.

    Her name is Joyce Puta, a 48-year-old Zambian army colonel on secondment to the United Nations. An unabashed fighter, her enemy for the last ten years has been HIV/AIDS. Her latest battleground is Liberia, and by all accounts she has been waging a successful campaign. Working with the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), Colonel Puta points out that any environment requiring peacekeepers is also a risky one for the spread of HIV/AIDS. In post-conflict situations, social structures crumble and economies are unstable. In order to survive, desperate young women may turn to commercial sex work, often around military bases. So how did a career Zambian army officer find herself on the frontlines in the fight against HIV/AIDS? Joyce Puta joined the army at eighteen. Six years later she became a registered nurse and midwife, and then nursing services manager for Zambia's main military hospital. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    State of anarchy. Rebellion and abuses against civilians.

    Bouckaert P; Bercault O

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Sep. 108 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 14(A))

    Since mid-2005, hundreds of civilians have been killed, more than 10 thousand houses burned, and approximately 212,000 persons have fled their homes in terror to live in desperate conditions deep in the bush in northern Central African Republic (CAR). Bordering eastern Chad and war-ravaged Darfur in Sudan, this area has been destabilized by at least two major rebellions against the government of President Francois Bozize. The vast majority of summary executions and unlawful killings, and almost all village burnings, have been carried out by government forces, often in reprisal for rebel attacks. While both main rebel groups have been responsible for widespread looting and the forced taxation of the civilian population in areas they control - and rebels in the northeast have committed killings, beatings, and rape - their abuses pale in comparison to those of the Central African Armed Forces (Forces armees Centrafricaines, FACA) and the elite Presidential Guard (Garde presidentielle, GP). As the International Criminal Court (ICC) begins investigations into atrocities committed during the 2002-2003 rebellion against former President Patasse, it should also investigate possible war crimes under its jurisdiction committed in the current round of fighting. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Peace-keeping efforts in Darfur.

    Lancet. 2007 Aug 11; 370(9586):458.

    In a speech at the UN last week, UK Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, described the war in Darfur as "the greatest humanitarian disaster the world faces today". Since the conflict began 4 years ago, 200 000 people are believed to have died and 2.5 million people have fled their homes to escape the violence. Now, there is renewed hope as the UN Security Council with the alleged support of the Sudanese Government has approved the largest peacekeeping mission in the world-the deployment of a 26 000-strong hybrid UN-African force to bring security to the region. But can this UN mission succeed when past missions in Darfur have failed? It is unclear who will supply the needed troops. The stipulation that the troops have to be mainly African will be a challenge; the existing 7000-African Union peace force is already overstretched. A firm strategy for the new deployment and the kind of peace these troops will be looking to monitor and implement are vague. Furthermore, deployment of 26 000 troops brings all sorts of logistical problems, including access to water and allocation of land. Additionally, training troops on gender issues to protect women and children from the continued violence needs to be ensured. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    United Nations Reform: Improving Peace Operations by Advancing the Role of Women. Sponsored by the Stanley Foundation in cooperation with Women in International Security. November 14, 2006 - New York, November 16, 2006 - Washington, DC.

    Conaway CP

    Muscatine, Iowa, Stanley Foundation, 2006. 24 p.

    In November 2006, over 75 experts gathered in New York and Washington to discuss "United Nations Reform: Improving Peace Operations by Advancing the Role of Women." Convened by the Stanley Foundation and Women in International Security (WIIS), practitioners and policymakers from various United Nations agencies, national governments and militaries, academia, and civil society groups identified barriers to women's advancement and generated concrete ways to improve the recruitment and selection of women for peace operations as heads of mission, military personnel, civilian police, and international and national staff. On numerous occasions, the United Nations has committed itself to achieving 50/50 gender balance throughout the organization. Indeed, understanding of the added value of women's knowledge and experiences is growing within the UN system and beyond, yet implementation of existing mandates is sporadic. Furthermore, the pockets of activity and momentum are rarely connected, as UN agencies, member states, and civil society are frequently operating in parallel structures and forums. The New York and Washington sessions brought diverse actors together to bridge the knowledge gap, maximize efforts, and jointly strategize on next steps to enhance women's numbers and role in peace operations. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Children and armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Freedson J; Singh S

    UN Chronicle. 2006; [4] p..

    In June 2004, six fighters from the Congolese Rally for Democracy-Goma gang-raped a woman in the presence of her husband and children, while another soldier raped her three-year-old daughter, according to Human Rights Watch. In June 2005, a 17-year-old boy was arrested by a Mai-Mai officer after he refused to draw water for the military stationed there and was severely tortured while he was held in detention in the camp. A local non-governmental organization (NGO) reported that the boy was released only after a large fine was paid. In November 2005, three soldiers from the United Congolese forces tied an 11-year-old girl with an electric cable and repeatedly raped her in a military camp, according to the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC). These cases are examples of the brutal violations against Congolese children, as documented by the Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict in its April 2006 report, Struggling to Survive: Children in Armed Conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The country continues to endure the world's deadliest humanitarian crisis and, according to the International Rescue Committee, more than 38,000 people die every month as a direct and indirect consequence of the armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). As many as 45 per cent of these deaths occurred among children who fell victim to intolerable human rights violations committed in an atmosphere of almost complete impunity. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    On the front line: a review of policies and programmes to address HIV / AIDS among peacekeepers and uniformed services.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2003 Aug. [31] p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against HIV / AIDS; UNAIDS/03.44E)

    This initiative focuses on mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS in three core areas: International security, with the focus on supporting HIV/AIDS interventions within United Nations peacekeeping operations; National security, targeting uniformed services with particular emphasis on young recruits, future peacekeepers and demobilizing personnel; Humanitarian response, which focuses on vulnerable populations in crisis settings and humanitarian workers. As part of its national security initiative, UNAIDS SHR, in collaboration with UN Theme Groups, is providing support to countries for the development and/or strengthening of national responses targeting national uniformed services and, in particular, young recruits, demobilized personnel and peacekeepers. Approximately 45 countries worldwide are currently supported through the Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Security. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Fighting AIDS: HIV / STI prevention and care activities in a military and peacekeeping setting in Ukraine. Country report.

    Khodakevich L

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2004 Feb. 43 p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against AIDS. Case Study 2.)

    Ukraine has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Eastern Europe. It was first in the region to face an aggressive epidemic among injecting drug users in 1995, and the epidemic now appears to have entered a more generalized phase. The Government of Ukraine responded to HIV at an early stage. Several Presidential Decrees urged the Government to initiate and enhance activities against the epidemics, and mobilize various ministries including the Ministry of Defence. In June 1999 the heads of the Educational Branch in the Preventive Medicine Department of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) met with UNAIDS officials and discussed HIV/AIDS issues in the Ukrainian army. The meeting resulted in an agreement to launch a project on prevention of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ukraine's armed forces. Funds and technical support were provided by UNAIDS, and the Main Educational Department started implementation of the project with the assistance of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The project focused on the development of training and educational materials, integration of education about HIV/STI prevention in the curricula of the Humanitarian Institute of the National Academy of Defence and the Kharkiv Tank Forces Institute, and on cascade training (cascading information down to all levels of rank and file) of the officers and soldiers in five field garrisons. Around 20,000 servicemen were trained in the first phase. The second phase of the project will run to early 2004 and the army headquarters are applying for resources from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and AIDS in order to strengthen these activities. During the second phase of the project 350,000 servicemen are to be targeted with comprehensive information and education relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    HIV and national security: Where are the links? A Council on Foreign Relations report.

    Garrett L

    New York, New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2005. 67 p.

    It is important to clarify the security dimensions of the HIV/AIDS pandemic because actions taken to confront the disease as matters of domestic policy or foreign aid may differ markedly from those taken to address threats to national security. Understanding the impact HIV is now having, much less forecasting its toll and effects twenty years hence, is difficult. Little scrupulous analysis of the political, military, economic, and general security effects of the pandemic has been performed, both because the area is poorly funded and the problem is extremely complex. The epidemic is unfolding in waves that span human generations, and societies are making incremental adjustments along the way as they try to cope with the horrible impact AIDS is taking, not only in terms of human lives lost, but in the devastation of families, clans, civil society, social organizations, business structures, armed forces, and political leadership. Further, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is occurring primarily in regions that are hard-hit by a range of other devastating diseases, acute and even rising poverty, political instability, and other conditions that may mask or exacerbate the various impacts of AIDS. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Educating peacekeepers about AIDS.

    Kuhlmann T

    UN Chronicle. 2004 Mar-May; 41(1):[6] p..

    When soldiers from Eritrea put on their uniform belts, they not only carry with them hand grenades, ammunition cases and canteens but, since 2003, also a leather pouch that holds four-pack condoms. With distribution ongoing, these pouches are now standard military issue equipment of the Eritrean Defense Force and thus a weapon against HIV/AIDS, which in the last twenty years has claimed more lives in sub-Saharan Africa than all wars on that continent in the last century. More than twenty years since the disease was first identified, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS) said that it has continued to spread not only in Africa but also in many parts of the world, killing some 8,000 people each day, while another 14,000 are infected, adding to some 42 million living with the virus. While the fight against the pandemic is pursued on many levels and in many sectors, efforts in recent years of the United Nations and its Member States have begun to specifically target the role that military and police personnel--the so-called "uniformed services"--play in the spread of the infection. The initial focus will be on peacekeepers. With many of them young and sexually active, often deployed to or from regions with high HIV/AIDS prevalence, and by profession inclined to risky behaviour, some consider the peacekeepers to be "more likely to contract or transmit the virus than the average population", Roxanne Bazergan, HIV/AIDS Policy Adviser with UNAIDS and the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), told the UN Chronicle. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Human Rights Commission: effects of irregular armed forces, drug traffickers, child abuse, protection of minorities - United Nations Commission on Human Rights.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2):[7] p..

    The Commission on Human Rights, at its forty-sixth session, covered a wide range of topics, including the consequences of actions by irregular armed forces and drug traffickers, child abuse, the rights of victims of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the protection of rights of many minorities, including indigenous populations and migrant workers. It also reviewed specific human rights situations in 14 countries and territories, including reports on initial missions to Iran and Romania by Special Representatives. UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar was asked to report in 1991 on the results of his ongoing contacts with Cuba regarding the human rights situation there. The 43 member body also dealt with alleged human rights violations in southern Africa, the Middle East and other regions. No action was taken on proposed drafts related to China and Iraq. A report on the situation in Myamnar (formerly Burma) was received. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Too soon for twilight, too late for dawn: the story of children caught in conflict - includes related articles on the UN General Assembly's stand on child-related issues, participation of children as soldiers, and recommendations for the protection of children during armed conflict - Cover story.

    UN Chronicle. 1996 Winter; 33(4):[12] p..

    In the last decade more than 2 million children have been killed, more than 4 million have survived physical mutilation and more than 1 million have been orphaned or separated from their families. All as a result of war. Joy unblemished as they play outside school, tumbling through the grass with friends, running under a gushing stream of water on a hot evening or down hills stung by snow. Laughter and love. These are the memories of the more innocent times evoked in the minds of many of us as we reminisce about our own childhoods. Where we had time to grow up and only slowly learn the darker ways of the world. But such memories are unimaginably distant from the reality that millions of children, caught up in the deadly games of adults, must confront. Instead, for the increasing numbers of children living in war-torn nations, childhood has become a living nightmare. A just-released United Nations study on the impact of armed conflict on children paints a truly devastating picture of untold suffering and cruelty, of a world increasingly "being sucked into a desolate moral vacuum. This is a space devoid of the most basic human values; a space in which children are slaughtered, raped and maimed; a space in which children are exploited as soldiers; a space in which children are starved and exposed to extreme brutality." The report was the outcome of a two-year investigation that included field visits to battle-scarred areas, dramatic case studies, input from eminent personalities and experts, and consultations with Governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), armed opposition movements and children themselves. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Getting it right, doing it right: gender and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, UNIFEM, 2004 Oct. [51] p.

    Disarmament is the collection of small arms and light and heavy weapons within a conflict zone. It frequently entails the assembly and cantonment of combatants; it should also comprise the development of arms management programmes, including the safe storage and final disposition of weapons, which may entail their destruction. De-mining may also be part of this process. Demobilization refers to the process by which parties to a conflict begin to disband their military structures and combatants begin the transformation into civilian life. It generally entails registration of former combatants; some kind of assistance to enable them to meet their immediate basic needs; discharge; and transportation to their home communities. It may be followed by recruitment into a new, unified military force. Reintegration refers to the process which allows ex-combatants and their families to adapt, economically and socially, to productive civilian life. It generally entails the provision of a package of cash or in-kind compensation, training and job- and income-generating projects. These measures frequently depend for their effectiveness upon other, broader undertakings, such as assistance to returning refugees and internally displaced persons; economic development at the community and national level; infrastructure rehabilitation; truth and reconciliation efforts; and institutional reform. Enhancement of local capacity is often crucial for the long-term success of reintegration. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    UNAIDS and the DPKO report back to the Security Council on the response to the Resolution 1308.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response

    Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, 2003. 6 p.

    The Security Council Resolution 1308, adopted on 17 July 2000, addresses the linkages between HIV/AIDS, peace and security. Following up on the implementation of the Resolution, the President of the Security Council (Angola) invited the Executive Director of UNAIDS and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations once again to provide oral reports on 17th of November 2003 on progress in implementing the Resolution. All 15 Security Council members made statements and comments following the briefings by DPKO and UNAIDS, marking a growing commitment to the issue of HIV/AIDS and peace and security. The Council members endorsed and expressed full support for the collaboration between UNAIDS and DPKO in supporting Governments in the development of policies, strategies and programmes to address HIV/AIDS in this context. All delegations welcomed the reports and expressed their satisfaction with progress to date, including the development of UNAIDS technical materials, with special emphasis on the Peer Education Kit for Uniformed Services and the placement of HIV/AIDS policy advisers or focal points at peacekeeping missions. Several delegations praised the efforts made in providing voluntary and confidential counseling and testing facilities at mission level. Some members called for solid monitoring and evaluation mechanisms and there was a request for an assessment of the link between human security and HIV/AIDS. Due to the importance of this issue the Security Council has requested one substantive report from UNAIDS, DPKO and their partners on the progress made to address HIV/AIDS in the context of peace and security, along with suggestions for future action. SHR is working closely with DPKO on the development of this report which will form the basis of a more in-depth discussion on these issues in the Security Council in 2004. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Return and resettlement in Liberia.

    Schultz J

    Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):33.

    An Oxfam GB initiative to improve understanding of the concerns and expectations of Liberian ex-combatants offers lessons for sustainable reintegration assistance. In preparation for working in post-conflict communities in several areas of Liberia, Oxfam GB consulted a sample of civilians, displaced persons and current and ex-combatants (using this category in its broadest sense to include anyone associated with the fighting factions - including porters, cooks and 'wives'). Oxfam also consulted those with experience of providing services to ex-combatants during a previous disarmament process in 1996-97. Focus group and individual interviews identified local preconditions for sustainable return. All those interviewed said they would not want to return home with their families unless combatants were disarmed. They also called for the deployment of UN soldiers in villages of return, reintegration packages, shelter reconstruction materials, free and fair elections and education opportunities. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    The return and reintegration of "child soldiers" in Sudan: the challenges ahead.

    Robertson C; McCauley U

    Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):30-32.

    An evaluation of recent UNICEF support to child disarmament demobilization and reintegration (DDR) in southern Sudan analyses the impact of different ways of addressing demobilization, care, return and reintegration of children formerly associated with the lighting forces' (CAFF). International child protection agencies used to plan the return and reintegration of CAFF separately from other was-affected and vulnerable children and youth. Increasingly, such planning trends to be merged within a broader framework for a range of vulnerable children and youth. In 2001-2003 some 20,000 children were removed in two phases from the armed forces of the main southern Sudanese rebel groups, the Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Sudan People's Democratic Front (SPDF). During the UNICEF-managed first phase, 3,551 children were demobilised from northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and evacuated to Rumbek where they remained in eight transit centres for six months before being returned to their homes. Responsibility for the second phase was transferred to the SPLA and SPDF. Approximately 16,500 children were locally demobilised and reunited with their families without the use of interim care or provision of individual reintegration packages. The relative success of the second phase demonstrated that a decentralized approach to demobilisation, undertaken simultaneously in many locations and using local staff who had received only essential training, could be made to work - and without recourse to interim care. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    HIV testing of specific populations: recruits of the armed forces. Issue paper: 3rd Meeting, UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, 28-30 January 2004.

    Jürgens R; Stoltz L; Patterson D

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2004. 6 p.

    In 2001, the United Nations Security Council established an Expert Panel to study the issue of whether the UN should institute HIV testing of peacekeeping personnel. This article, based on a 9 July 2002 presentation to the 14th International AIDS Conference, reports on the findings of a paper prepared for the Expert Panel by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. The paper examined whether it is permissible for the UN to implement mandatory HIV testing of its peacekeeping personnel, and whether HIV-positive UN peacekeeping personnel should be excluded or restricted from service on the basis of their HIV status or HIV disease progression. The article describes some of the court cases in which these issues have been considered; discusses the importance of analyzing such issues in the context of a human rights–based approach to the pandemic; and formulates a series of key principles for guiding UN decision-making. The article concludes that a policy of mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel cannot be justified on the basis that it is required in order to assess their physical and mental capacity for service; that HIV-positive peacekeeping personnel cannot be excluded from service based on their HIV status alone, but only on their ability to perform their duties; and that the UN cannot resort to mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel to protect the health and safety of HIV-negative personnel unless it can demonstrate that alternatives to such a policy would not reduce the risk sufficiently. In the end, the Expert Panel unanimously rejected mandatory testing and instead endorsed voluntary HIV counselling and testing for UN peacekeeping personnel. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV / AIDS and the military: fighting the war against HIV / STIs.

    van Beelen N

    Sexual Health Exchange. 2003; [7] p..

    The armed forces in many high-prevalence countries are especially vulnerable to STIs, including HIV. Various contributory factors include the young age of many soldiers, their related high levels of sexual activity, a military culture that promotes risk-taking, and uses the purchasing of sex as part of bonding among soldiers, the high availability of commercial sex near army camps, and last but not least, the lengthy periods of time during which soldiers are away from home. This combination of factors leads to situations in which soldiers purchase sex from sex workers in the vicinity of their camps. Often these sexual encounters are not protected by condom use. The military has been traditionally concerned about STIs and has promoted condom use for a long time. There are data indicating that the prevalence of HIV and STIs among military personnel is higher than among the average population in many countries. For example, data from a rural blood bank in Mozambique showed that 39% of military blood donors were HIV-positive, compared to 15% of non-military donors. Almost 75% of the HIV-infected soldiers also tested positive for syphilis. Estimates of HIV prevalence among the military in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo range between 40 and 60%. UNAIDS estimates that during periods of peace, STI rates among the armed forces are generally 2-5 times higher than in comparable civilian populations. The difference can be even greater in times of conflict. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    Vietnam, U.S. militaries meet on HIV / AIDS.

    Associated Press

    New York Times. 2004 Apr 15; [2] p..

    U.S. and Vietnamese military officials on Thursday concluded their first ever joint conference aimed at HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention, the latest step by the former enemies to expand cooperation. The conference drew about 130 participants, including senior U.S. and Vietnamese military officials and international organizations. The two militaries have been building on unprecedented cooperation following last fall's historic trip to the United States by Vietnam's Defense Minister Pham Van Tra, and the first postwar U.S. naval port call in Ho Chi Minh City. This week's meetings were a ``recognition by the U.S. and Vietnamese governments that HIV/AIDS represents a significant problem for Southeast Asia in general,'' said Lt. Col. Jerome Kim, with the Hawaii-based Tripler Army Medical Center. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    Fighting AIDS. HIV / AIDS prevention and care among armed forces and UN peacekeepers: the case of Eritrea.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2003 Aug. 40 p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against AIDS. Case Study No. 1; UNAIDS/03.44E)

    Uniformed services, including peacekeepers, frequently rank among the population groups most affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Military personnel are two-to-five times more likely to contract STIs than the civilian population and, during conflict, this factor can increase significantly. However, soldiers may also become important agents for behavioural change in reversing the spread of HIV within the army and beyond. If equipped with the right information, knowledge and tools, the military can achieve lower HIV prevalence rates than the national average, as can be seen from the experiences among the armed forces of Ethiopia and Uganda. HIV/AIDS poses a particular threat to peacekeeping, which is a pillar of the international security system. Conflict and post-conflict situations represent high-risk environments for the spread of HIV/AIDS. One-third of the officers and soldiers under UN command are stationed in Africa, which is home to 70% of people living with HIV. As early as 1995, the US State Department noted, “worldwide peacekeeping operations may pose a danger of spreading HIV… peacekeepers could both be a source of HIV infection to local populations and be infected by them, thus becoming a source of the infection when they return home”. For example, the HIV infection rate was 11% among Nigerian peacekeepers who returned home from duty in Sierra Leone and Liberia in 2000, when the rate in the civilian adult population in Nigeria was5%. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    Enlisting the armed forces to protect reproductive health and rights: lessons learned from nine countries. Technical report. [Mobiliser les forces armées pour protéger la santé reproductive et les droits en matière de reproduction : les leçons tirées de neuf pays. Rapport technique]

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical Support Division. Culture, Gender and Human Rights Branch

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003 Aug 18. 99 p.

    This comparative study of country experiences across regions was undertaken as part of a UNFPA interregional project ‘Improving Gender Perspective, Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Prevention through Stronger Partnership with the Military’ (project number INT/01/PM3). It was conducted by UNFPA’s Technical Support Division, with generous support from the Swedish International Development Agency and through collaboration with the UNFPA Technical Assistance Programme regional advisors, country offices and national consultants. Its purpose is to inform future programming by identifying effective approaches for working with men in the uniformed services in reproductive and sexual health from a gender perspective. Although UNFPA has long cooperated with the military in the areas of family planning and family life education, its growing cooperation with an institution that operates in unique political and social contexts – in times of peace or conflict – has not been well documented. Experience sharing is needed to scale-up or sustain effective interventions and guide future programming. Cross-regional exchange of experiences is expected to enhance UNFPA’s practical knowledge and leadership role in an area where it clearly has a comparative advantage regarding gender issues, reproductive health/reproductive rights promotion, and the fight against HIV/AIDS. Equipped with practical insights into the implementation process, UNFPA offices and their national partners should be able to improve existing programmes or introduce new ones. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    The 108th Congress: more bad news for women.

    International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC]

    New York, New York, IWHC, [2003]. 10 p.

    The United States Congress is pursuing a number of misguided domestic and international policies that have profound—and profoundly counterproductive–impacts on women in the United States and around the world. Each individual action deserves attention; taken together they paint a chilling picture of Congress' willingness to sacrifice women and girls to gain political favor with those on the far right. In tandem with the Bush administration, the Republican-dominated 108th Congress is chipping away at women’s rights and health both at home and abroad. The International Women’s Health Coalition has compiled some of its most egregious actions, as a complement to our ongoing monitoring of the Bush administration (see the Bush’s Other War factsheet at (excerpt)
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