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From Nairobi to Beijing. Second review and appraisal of the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. Report of the Secretary-General.
New York, New York, United Nations Publications, 1995. XXI, 366 p.This document contains the second review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS) for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 undertaken by the UN in preparation for the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). The book opens with an overview and an introductory section presenting the UN mandates and resolutions that pertain to this review. Section 1 then provides an overview of the current global economic and social framework in terms of 1) trends in the global economy and in economic restructuring as they relate to the advancement of women, 2) the gender aspects of internal and external migration, 3) trends in international trade and their influence on the advancement of women, and 4) other factors affecting the implementation of the NFLS. Section 2 discusses the following critical areas of concern: 1) the persistent and growing burden of poverty on women, 2) inequality in access to education and other means of maximizing the use of women's capacities, 3) inequality in access to health and related services, 4) violence against women, 5) the effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women, 6) inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition of economic structure and policies and the productive process, 7) inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making, 8) insufficient mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, 9) lack of awareness of and commitment to recognized women's human rights, 10) insufficient use of the mass media to promote women's contributions to society, and 11) lack of adequate recognition and support for women's contribution to managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment. The final section details international action to implement the NFLS.
APPLIED GEOGRAPHY. 1995 Jul; 15(3):197-202.This article considers the aftermath of the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development and the later Laxon, Sweden meeting of about 40 academic geographers, who addressed the implications of the Plan of Action for national policy. A recent International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) member synthesized conference impact on member nations. Martens from IUSSP offered the critique that the 381 recommendations were philosophically incoherent and poorly integrated and did not distinguish between government as a "doer of things" from government as "organizer and guarantor of a legal-institutional framework for allowing individuals and voluntary groups to seek improvements." This article discusses the apparent gulf between the views of population researchers and that of policy makers. It is reasoned that population policies do matter. The Club of Rome world model confirmed rapid population growth during 1972-90. Population policies in the past emphasized a societal perspective rather than an individual one. Policies impact on individual decision making. Most population geographers emphasize four features of social change. 1) Policy must address suitable measures for easing social, economic, and political tensions that arise in the temporary experience of high population growth. 2) More sensitive models of demographic behavior need to be developed, in order to account for the highly uneven patterns of fertility and mortality. Policy should not focus exclusively on family planning and should take into account the cultural and socioeconomic context. 3) Migration pressures from poor to rich countries have increased. Policy should address international migration. 4) People adapt quickly to new policy measures and apply policies effectively in their own life. Policies fail when the top-down approach does not include adequate research into values and behavior of the persons most affected by policy. These four points were discussed throughout this issue of "Applied Geography."
Quebec, Canada, Universite Laval, Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Sante et Developpement, 1995 Oct. , 25, 7 p.The International Cooperation Center in Health and Development (CCISD) based at the Faculty of Medicine of Laval University in Quebec prepared this summary report on agencies that support AIDS control programs in West Africa. It allows one to know who is doing what and where. It is far from being complete since all who had been contacted were not necessarily available or did not always respond to questions. One will find this document appealing. Some sectors polarize funding agencies in AIDS control. CCISD does not aim to evaluate what is being done but to state what exists. It is still striking to see that sectors responsible for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not sufficiently financed in the subregion. It would be good for funding agencies and national AIDS control programs to plan regular regional meetings. This would allow them to specify courses of intervention and especially benefit both in terms of accumulated experiences in the field. The chapters of the summary report discuss the epidemiology of AIDS and STDs in West Africa (HIV/AIDS prevalence and the link between migration and AIDS), the role of funding agencies, lessons learned, the question of whether Africans have taken to heart the AIDS epidemic, the African Development Bank and AIDS control in Africa, the World Bank and the regional AIDS control project for Francophone Africa, and Canada and the AIDS control program in Francophone Africa. The report provides a list of funding agencies and a contact person in those agencies.
PEOPLE COUNT. 1995 Jan; 4(12):1-4.The three goals of the UN World Summit for Social Development are to attack poverty, build solidarity, and create jobs. Unprecedented population growth has led to recognition of the need for a new, people-centered vision of development to counter the mutually reinforcing threats posed to world stability by poverty, unemployment, and social disintegration. This population growth may result in an inability of humanity to adapt and create unrelenting pressure on the world's natural resources. It has become increasingly recognized that improvements in the status of women will be vital to ensuring the future of humanity. Giving women the ability to decide their family size will eliminate hundreds of thousands of maternal deaths each year and will slow population growth while it increases women's productivity and control over resources. As the industrialized nations engage in unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, the lowest-income countries are caught in a "poverty-population-environment spiral." Although population growth is gradually slowing, the population of the world could double by 2050, with 95% of the growth occurring in developing countries. Concern is also mounting over the increasing urbanization of the world as well as the fact that while the populations of poor countries are becoming larger and younger, the population of industrialized countries are becoming older and smaller. The new vision of sustainable development involves generating economic growth, distributing benefits equitably, and allowing the regeneration of the environment. Without such security, the world can not achieve peace. The symptoms of social discrimination include social exclusion, which affects 90% of the world's population; sex and racial discrimination, which lowers the quality of life and increases life-threatening risks for women, indigenous people, and Blacks; violence and abuse, reflected in fact that the US has the highest incidence of murder in the world, in the 200,000 street children in Brazil, in the 500,000 child prostitutes in Asia, and in violence against women world-wide; crime, which is increasing and is often drug-related; migration, which affects 1/115 people on earth; and conflict, which increasingly occurs within national borders and involves civilian casualties and which leads to military spending of approximately $800 billion a year.
National perspectives on population and development. Synthesis of 168 national reports prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development, 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1995. viii, 112 p.This document highlights some of the most interesting and salient features of the 168 national reports prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and illustrates the variety and complexity of situations encountered across countries and regions. Part 1 presents insights into changing perspectives on population issues, especially into the recurrent themes of 1) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment and 2) the role and status of women. The evolution of political commitment to population concerns during the past two decades is also traced, and the challenges ahead are outlined. Part 2 deals with population dynamics issues through a discussion of the implications of population growth and structure, improving health conditions, influencing fertility, and internal and international migration. The statistics used in this document are those found in the national reports and complementary information forms. The UN geographic system of classification of countries is used, and frequent distinctions are made between developing and industrialized countries.