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Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004.  p.The initial part of this report reviews the available literature and the surveys of health worker (and other skilled) migration in the Pacific region. This is linked to an examination of recent changes in the stock of health workers in PICs, with particular reference to emigration and immigration, and the impact of these changes on health care provision. The second part of the report reviews the data derived from surveys undertaken in a number of PICs and destination nations, on potential and actual migrants, presently or formerly employed in health care, that focus on the rationale and context for out-migration, and the potential for return migration (of SHPs currently overseas). This is linked to studies of immigrant SHPs in PICs, to examine their migration and employment history and their contribution to the maintenance and improvement of health care in the region. Finally this is reviewed in the context of existing policies that seek to influence the retention, and appropriate allocation of health workers, in PICs, and the potential for developing more effective policies. (excerpt)
[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Europe Region, 1984 Jun. 122 p.Reflections, speculations, and partial evaluations of work already undertaken in the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Europe Region concerning migrants and planned parenthood are presented. This project, initiated by the Federal Republic of Germany Planned Parenthood Association (PPA), PRO FAMILIA, stemmed from the practical experiences and problems of 1 family planning association in the Europe region. The original substantive framework, consisting of data collection and correspondence, plenary meetings, and subworking group meetings on specific areas of interest, was not altered. Throughout the project, as the work was accomplished, the emphasis shifted to different aspects to migrant work. The 1st questionnaire was intended to provide a sociodemographic profile of the participating countries, a show European migratory movements, and ascertain the ethnicity of the target groups in the different countries. The 2nd questionnaire was related specifically to PPA and/or other family planning center's data and activities and attempted to explore PPA attitudes toward migrant clients, when special facilities for migrants were provided, and whether PPAs felt there was a particular need for such services. The report provides a sociodemographic background of migration in Europe. In addition it includes information from donor countries and recipient countries, examining family planning services in the Federal Republic of Germany and the UK. It also covers training; information, education, and communication; adolescence and 2nd generation migrants; and migrant work. It is necessary to be particularly aware of political sensitivities in treating immigrant fertility regulation. Ideally, the aim is to provide an integrated service for migrants and natives both, catering to individual needs. Until this is feasible, the goal must be to work toward an integrated service, recognizing the needs and providing special services where possible if this is judged tobe the best approach to catering to those needs. Migrant needs must be discovered rather than assumed. Better use should be made of the available printed material, which should be utilized to complement oral information where possible. Experience has shown that family planning personnel working with migrants need additional training. The main components of this training should include self-awareness, insight, and knowledge.
Population dynamics of rural Cameroon and its public health repercussions. A socio-demographic investigation of infertility in Mbandjock and Jakiri districts.
Yaounde, Cameroon, Public Health Unit, Univ. Centre for Health Sciences, Univ. of Yaounde, 1979 Oct. 314 p.The preliminary findings of the Vital Statistics Survey Project, conducted under the auspices of the University of Yaounde in 2 rural districts of Cameroon in 1975-78, are reported. Vital statistics surveys were conducted in 20 villages in the Jakiri district and 3 villages in the Mbandjock district in 1976. Longitudinal surveys were conducted in 1976-77 and again in 1977-78 in Jakiri and in 1976-77 in Mbandjock. Jakiri's population is characterized by high fertility and high mortality. In contrast, Mbandjock shows low fertility and a stagnant or decreasing population trend. Data on factors related to fertility were collected from 3592 women in Jakiri and 251 women in Mbandjock. The crude birth rate in Jakiri was 37.5 livebirths/1000 population in 1976-77 and 27.5/1000 in 1977-78. In Mbandjock, the 1976-77 rates were 20.1, 31, and 12/1000 in the 3 villages surveyed. The average number of living children per woman was 2.67 in Jakiri and 1.55 in Mbandjock. 68.9% of Jakiro women and 79% of Mbandjock women ages 15-50 were currently married; however, the latter district is characterized by widespread marital instability. The average number of pregnancies per women was 3.1 in Jakiri and 2.67 in Mbandjock, with average child wastage ratios of 0.43 and 1.12, respectively. The infant mortality rate in Jakiri was 147/1000 livebirths in 1976-77 and 137/1000 in 1977-78. The rate in Mbandjock declined from 417/1000 livebirths in 1976 to 0 in 1977, a decrease attributed both to an effective measles campaign and the small sample size. The average desired family size was 9 in Jakiri and 6 in Mbandjock. Jakiri demonstrated a total infertility rate of 17%. The corresponding rates in the 3 Mbandjock villages were 48, 46, and 52%. The proportion of infertile women ages 20-29 was 18% in Jakiri and 22, 16, and 24% in the Mbandjock villages. According to the World Health Organization, a 15% infertility rate in this age group is the limit for declaring a serious public health problem. However, since Careroon authorities seem satisfied with the fertility situation in Jakiri, it is suggested that the limit be raised to 18%. Mbandjock, on the other hand, is considered to have a serious infertility problem. 4 recommendations are made to improve the health profile for this part of rural Cameroon: 1) family planning programs should be introduced in areas of population explosion; 2) health education campaigns should be directed against the high rates of communicable diseases and childhood immunization campaigns should be introduced; 3) nutrition education should be integrated into community development programs; and 4) vital statistics collection should be centrally supervised.
Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.
[Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
New York, UN, 1979. 279 p. (Population studies No. 62)This report was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat on the basis of inputs by the Division, the International Labour Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the World Health Organization. Tables are presented for sex compositions of populations; demographic variables; percentage rates of change of unstandardized maternal mortality rates and ratios; population enumerated in the United States and born in Latin America; urban and rural population, annual rates of growth, and percentage of urban in total population, the world, the more developed and the less developed regions, 1950-75; crude death rates, by rural and urban residence, selected more developed countries; childhood mortality rates, age 1-4 years; and many others. The world population amounted to nearly 4 billion in 1975, a 60% increase over the 1950 population of 2.5 billion. The global increase is about 2%. The average death rate in developing areas has dropped from 25/1000 in 1950 to about 15/1000, a 40% decline. Estimates of birth rates in developing countries are 40-45 for 1950 and 35-40/1000 for 1975. Most of the shifts in vital trends in the less developed regions are still at an early stage or of limited geographical scope.
New York, United Nations, 1982. 345 p. (Comparative Study on Migration, Urbanization and Development in the ESCAP Region. Survey Manuals)In the developing countries of the Asian and Pacific region, migration and urbanization are major policy issues. To assist countries in confronting these issues the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) has undertaken the design of a model national migration survey that will generate the types of information deemed of most use to national policymakers. This volume's purpose is to outline some of the principal techniques and approaches that can be applied to the data collected through the model. The introductory chapter highlights the types of information that can be generated from the model to see how these relate to the major issues in migration research and to provide the background and summaries of the analytical chapters that follow. The 12 chapters of this volume deal with various aspects of the analysis of migration in relation to development. These include discussions on aspects of policy implementation, measurement of spatial flows, the interrelationship between census and survey data, the causes and impacts of migration, and projections of future flows. The chapter devoted to the ESCAP national migration surveys and the development of population redistribution policies provides an overview of how the various aspects of population mobility systems revealed by the migration surveys can prove useful for policy formulation and remedy current deficiencies in data necessary for planning. In a chapter on identification and measurement of spatial population movements an attempt is made to develop a typology of population mobility based on a space-time continuum framework, but the recorded statistics of population mobility are restricted to discrete spatial units and discrete time intervals. The chapter dealing with techniques for analysis of migration history data emphasizes the usefulness of the life history approach and how it can be used in the analysis of the most important topics in migration research such as changes in the pattern of movement over time and the determinants and consequences of migration. One chapter focuses on subjectively expressed motivations for moving, examining the strengths and weaknesses of self assessed motivations. Subsequent chapters show that the national migration survey model has the potential to provide data to evaluate the conditions that operate to produce migrant/nonmigrant fertility differentials, address some of the theoretical aspects of the decision of whether or not to intervene in population redistribution patterns, discuss possible dimensions of the study of migration impacts, and examine various conventional methods of subnational population projections and suggests an innovative technique that will increase understanding of the dynamic process of multiregional population growth and distribution.
Comparative Study on Migration, Urbanization and Development in the ESCAP Region (RAS/P13/79). Rev. version.
Population Research Leads. 1982 Jan; (6):1-36.Development of a study project by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) on migration, urbanization, and development in the following countries is described: Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The project's immediate goal is to assist decision makers in formulating population redistribution policies. It was recommended that ESCAP develop and test a migration questionnaire to assist member countries in undertaking surveys to study the interrelationships of migration and development. Upon completion of survey manuals to assist in the survey implementation, it was suggested that ESCAP run a series of in-country workshops to discuss the applications of survey results for policy formulation. A national migration survey will be taken in each country in the early 1980s in order to discern pattern and type of population mobility, factors that cause people to move or not to move, and the consequences of migration on places of origin and destination. A sample of 14,000 households in each country will be selected and 1 person of age 15-64 will be chosen as the respondent for each household. the following are some items which will be studied: 1) volume of migration streams within and between metropolitan areas and urban-rural areas; 2) decision making factors; 3) interactions between population movement and family structure, chages in fertility levels, employment, and education; 4) impact of agricultural systems on seasonal movements; 5) contributions of migrants to the cities; and 6) implications of international migration to and from the country. Leading family planning agencies will use these results to develop policy relating to population distribution, industry location, migration laws, regional economic planning, modern technology, and rural education. The management framework of the project is presented. After these results are published, government agencies can utilize them by incorporating direct questions on population movement into the national census, conducting demonstration projects to assess the impact of population movement programs, and training personnel.