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[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
Improving comparability of international migration statistics: contributions by the Conference of European Statisticians from 1971 to date.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1987 Winter; 21(4):1017-37.This article summarizes the 3 main types of interrelated activities which the Conference of European Statisticians has worked on to improve the measurement and international comparability of international migration flows. The work has encompassed collaborating with the UN Statistical Commission on the preparation and implementation of the revised international recommendations on statistics of international migration, organizing a regular exchange of data on immigration and emigration flows among the UN Economic Commission for Europe countries and selected countries in other regions, and conducting bilateral studies on international migration within the framework of the Conference's program of work in this field of statistics. The bulk of the work which has been carried out to date by the conference has been conducted rather anonymously and even unobtrusively by the staff of national statistical offices in Economic Commission for Europe countries; they have achieved a modest but important amount of progress during the past 15 years. There is reason to expect that further progress will be made over the next decade, particularly if national statistical offices in the region continue to undertake bilateral studies and endeavor to improve their migration statistics. However, more substantial progress could be achieved if additional countries and organizations established projects aimed at achieving these ends (author's modified).
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1987 Winter; 21(4):996-1016.This article reviews the UN's efforts to improve international migration statistics. The review addresses the challenges faced by the UN, the direction in which this effort is going, gaps in the current approach, and priorities for future action. The content of the UN recommendations has changed in the past and seems to be moving toward further changes. At each stage, the direction of change corresponds broadly to earlier shifts in the overall context of world social-economic affairs and related transformations in international travel and migration patterns. Early (1953) objectives were vaguely stated in terms of social, economic, and demographic impacts of long term settlement. 1976 recommendations continued the focus on long term resettlement and, at the same time, gave more attention to at least 1 kind of short term (work-related) movement. Most recent recommendations have given more attention to other classes of short term travellers, such as refugees and contract workers. Recommendations on the measures and data sources have changed over time, also. The 1953 recommendations were limited to flow data from international border statistics. 1976 recommendations drew attention to stock data and the use of civil registration data to supplement border crossing data. Recent UN reflections recognize that the volume of border crossings has now reached the point where many countries simply refuse to gather data on all travellers, choosing instead to make estimates. It is implied that either sample surveys at border points and/or visas and entry permits may be the best way of counting various specific kinds of migrants. Future recommendations corresponding to contemporary and emerging concerns will require that the guidelines be restructured: 1) to give more explicit attention in international migration statistics to citizenship and access to political and welfare benefits; 2) to distinguish more carefully various sub-classes of movers; 3) to expand objectives of data collection to include an assessment of social impacts to complement the current focus on demographic and economic impacts; 4) and to give more careful attention to ways of estimating undocumented migrants and workers within large streams of other travellers.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
Comparative study on migration, urbanization and development in the ESCAP region. Country reports. 3. Migration, urbanization and development in Indonesia.
New York, UN, 1981. 202 p. (ST/ESCAP/169)The UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific undertook a comparative study of migration, urbanization, and development in the region. Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand participated in the project and other countries are expected to be added in the 1980s. This monograph outlined the major features of internal migration in Indonesia as revealed by data collected prior to the census and national surveys carried out or planned for the 1980s. Chapter 1 aimed to set the scene for the migration analysis which follows by examining similarities and differences in the economic, social, and demographic variables in the urban and rural sectors of Indonesia. Chapter 2 looks at the patterns of change in population distribution in Indonesia over the past 50 years. There is an examination of the changing patterns of urban growth and urbanization over the last 1/2 century in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the role of migration in the urbanization process. The next chapter examines some of the major sociodemographic and economic characteristics of migrants. Chapters 4 and 5 rely heavily on data which came from the 1971 census. The last chapter reviews the major problems relating to migration and urbanization in Indonesia and the policies which have followed which attempt to deal with those problems. The 1971 census was the main source of data used; however, migration data from the census suffer from shortcomings in detecting the level and nature of population mobility in Indonesia. Other limitations exist as well and these are all outlined in detail.
New York, UN, 1979. 279 p. (Population studies No. 62)This report was prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat on the basis of inputs by the Division, the International Labour Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the World Health Organization. Tables are presented for sex compositions of populations; demographic variables; percentage rates of change of unstandardized maternal mortality rates and ratios; population enumerated in the United States and born in Latin America; urban and rural population, annual rates of growth, and percentage of urban in total population, the world, the more developed and the less developed regions, 1950-75; crude death rates, by rural and urban residence, selected more developed countries; childhood mortality rates, age 1-4 years; and many others. The world population amounted to nearly 4 billion in 1975, a 60% increase over the 1950 population of 2.5 billion. The global increase is about 2%. The average death rate in developing areas has dropped from 25/1000 in 1950 to about 15/1000, a 40% decline. Estimates of birth rates in developing countries are 40-45 for 1950 and 35-40/1000 for 1975. Most of the shifts in vital trends in the less developed regions are still at an early stage or of limited geographical scope.
New York, Oceana, 1976. 432 pVolume 1, along with the 3 other volumes focusing on world population, presents information as both a background to the World Population Conference and as a permanent source book of representative documents to trace and keep pace with the population issue. National reports and surveys and regional data have been included, but the focus of the document is its international significance. Population problems have clearly become an international concern, although national governments are dealing with this issue in their own ways. Identified as the problem is the fact that at the present rate of population increase, the number of people on the earth will double in the next 25 years. The present total of 3500 million will possibly reach 7000 million by the year 2000. Chapter 1 deals with examination of the problem as well as the determinants and consequences of population trends. It reveals that exceptionally high rates of population increase have resulted from the reduction of mortality rates which is a significant achievement of modern times. However, this growth has not occurred simultaneously throughout the world. It originated in Europe and later spread to other regions following European economic development. Recently population growth seems to have slowed down in many parts of the European cultural sphere, but has gathered momentum in other areas. In certain regions of Asia and Africa, this characteristic of modern demographic development has not yet occurred. Other chapters focus on demographic research, Europe's population in the interwar years, migration and urbanization, and the world population situation.
Country Profiles. 1971 Apr; 12.The 1970 estimated population of Indonesia was 118,000,000, making it the fifth largest nation in the world. In 1961 the mean age at marriage for males was 24.3 years, for females 19.2 years. The birthrate is estimated at 43 to 45 per 1000, and the death rate at 17-19, causing a growth rate of about 2.8%. In 1970 about 50% of the population was literate. Rapid population growth is helping to restrict economic development, increasing unemployment problems, and negating expansion of social welfare programs. While the government of Indonesia supports family planning, it still maintains several pronatalist policies. Existing health facilities are utilized for family planning information and to stimulate referrals to clinic facilities. In 1969, 26,400 new acceptors chose IUDs, 15,000 chose orals, and 9,000 chose other methods. While in the past the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association conducted an equal role with the National Family Planning Institute. Because of grave economic problems Indonesia is now attaching high priority to the national family planning program to reduce the rate of population growth.