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In: Methodology for population studies and development, edited by Kuttan Mahadevan, Parameswara Krishnan. New Delhi, India, Sage, 1993. 82-121.Migration can be obligatory (transfers in job, joining husbands place) or sequential (the movement of dependents), besides being voluntary. The major data sources for the study of migration are population censuses, sample surveys, and population registers. A continuous population registration system has been in existence in the Scandinavian countries, a few West European countries, Taiwan, Israel, Japan, and some East European countries. Developed countries have developed techniques of estimating migration without sample surveys by using other sources built in within their social system. The censuses are the most widely used data sources for migration research where direct questions on migration (place of birth, place of last residence, place of residence at a specific prior date, and duration of residents) set the focus on the volume, level and pattern, differential selectivity, origin, and destination. Migration can be measured by the direct (census or sample survey) and indirect (residual methods from vital statistics and survival ratios based on census and/or life table) approaches. Selectivity in migration deals with differences in migration related to age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, ethnic origin, and language. Other topics addressed include determinants of migration; statistical generalizations and laws (Ravenstein's laws, push-pull theory); typologies; economic, spatial, behavioral, and mathematical approaches in migration theory; Zelinsky's hypothesis of migration/mobility transition; and the demographic, economic, and social consequences of migration. The migration process in multidimensional, time and space specific, thus a single theory is not comprehensive enough to explain its dynamics. Instead, a series of theories can be formulated: theory of migration for peasants, theory of migration for intellectuals, and theory of migration for cultural groups. This necessitates the development of comprehensive typologies of migration.
MIGRATION WORLD. 1986; 14(1/2):50-7.The object of the end-of-the-decade Conference held in Nairobi was to appraise the achievements of the UN Decade for Women and to develop Forward Looking Strategies (FLS) to the year 2000 aimed at overcoming the remaining obstacles. The feminization of poverty is today a global phenomenon and 1 solution is women's empowerment of women's perspectives. The Strategies are a significant tool for women's empowerment through women's full participation in decision-making processes. Although the FLS is addressed to governments and organizations, it also recognizes the important role of individuals in bringing about changes. Strategies aimed at altering the root causes of migration are: 1) support of the movement for a new international economic order that will reduce the structural inequalities among countries, 2) the deemphasis of export-oriented development policies that accelerate migration and neglect the internal needs of developing countries, 3) the examination of the reasons behind the increase of female migration and a parallel creation of policies to benefit these women, 4) the encouragement of governments to examine implicit and explicit migration policies that may violate human rights, and 5) the examination of the role of the mass media and cultural models iported from the West in accelerating migration. Other strategies listed include: 1) legal strategies, 2) strategies addressing cultural identity, 3) strategies for women femaining in emigrant households in donor areas, 4) strategies for facilitating the organizing of immigrant groups by immigrants, 5) strategies for establishing a network of solidarity and self organized immigrant associations, and 6) strategies for linking research to action.
Report of the Director-General. Growth and adjustment in Asia: issues of employment, productivity, migration and women workers.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1985. iv, 127 p.This report presents the activities of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Asia for the 5 years since the ILO's Ninth Asian Regional Conference of 1980. The economic recession has severely affected socioeconomic development in many states. Per capita income has fallen in a number of poorer developing countries, due to rapid population growth. The impact of the recession has varied greatly; the average rate of growth of South East Asian economies in the 1980s was higher than those of other regions. However, the recession has inevitably brought about a fall in tax receipts and thus increased budget deficits. Technical cooperation remains a major means for the ILO to achieve its goals, but its technical cooperation program faces severe funding constraints now. Regional projects now promote technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC). This report 1) highlights the major development issues of the 1980s in Asia, 2) reviews ILO operations in the region for 1980-1984, 3) summarizes TCDC activities and identifies the ways of promoting TCDC in the region, 4) considers the issues of Asian migrant workers and female employment, and 5) formulates conclusions. An appendix reports on actions taken on the conclusions and resolutions adopted by the Ninth Asian Regional Conference.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
New York, UN, 1979. 60 p. (Population Studies No. 71; ST/ESA/SER.A/71)The overall objective of the WPPA (World Population Plan of Action) is to increase the capacity of developing countries, individually and collectively, to pursue their development. This evaluation of the WPPA is concerned with the Plan's performance in the context of international and national progress in population matters. The General Assembly resolutions on the New International Economic Order propose measures to close the gap between developed and developing countries but addresses specifically population oriented issues only in matters of international migration and the brain drain, loss of professionals. A central proposition of the WPPA is that population cannot be isolated or responded to without consideration of social and economic development; population is integrated with other social and economic policies and programs. The goals of the New International Economic Order can best be achieved, however, with adequate programs for population. In 1975 the world population was estimated at 4 billion. In 1980 the projected world population is over 4.4 billion. The rate of growth is 1.8% annually. Generally there has been significant positive progress in development policies in the past 5 years. Since the 1975 World Population Conference in Bucharest more national governments have adopted population programs and shown willingness to cooperate with international agencies in matters of population.
[Unpublished] 1977. 32 p.The Sahel refers geographically to a region south of the Sahara in East Africa, encompassing parts of 6 countries. This region recently suffered a devastating drought and famine. A class analysis of the origins of both the drought and the famine is presented. Many myths regarding the Sahel emphasize overpopulation, environmnetal deterioration, and poverty. These are myths, however. The environment does not determine the cultures of the region and poverty was not always a condition of the region. French colonialism in the area dislocated traditional agriculture, caused a transfer of the land to private ownership, and encouraged migration to France, all of which created classes in a previously classless society and undermined the subsistence base of the peasantry by emphasizing cash crops. The drought merely exacerbated a pre-existing situation and led to famine. A well-funded international development effort was the response to the drought/famine conditions in the Sahel. However, national and international forces combined in the development programs (exemplified by the Bakel region) to prevent local initiative and to prescribe what crops were to be produced and how. Production and productivity will only increase if peasant and herder participation are encouraged.
In: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Economic and demographic change: issues for the 1980's. Proceedings of the Conference, Helsinki, 1978. Vol. 2. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1979. 279-91.A set of rural-urban migration national indicators for developing countries has been developed by the U.N. Population Division for Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Asian countries have a rural out-migration rate that is higher, by 2-3/1000, than the rate for Latin American countries. Latin American countries have higher crude rates of out-migration than Asian, but the differences are explicable by other variables. Net rural out-migration is faster the higher the initial economic levels. Rural-urban migration is accelerated by high rates of economic growth, of agricultural productivity growth, and rural natural increase. In combination, these variables account for about 60% of the variance in levels of rural-urban migration in a sample of 29 developing countries with a population of 1.3 billion. When these factors are controlled, initially large regional differences are reduced to insignificance. Urbanization is closely associated with economic structural factors. Although the high rates of urbanization may cause alarm, antimigration policies should be made with the understanding that migration is an integrated role of locational changes in the modernization process. Rising levels of personal income, demand for agricultural products, and greater efficiency of production will continue to contribute to rural-urban migration. (Summary in FRE)
[Unpublished] 1977 Jun. 169 p.Population and development policy decisions must be based on accurate demographic data in order to correctly formulate priorities in budgets and expenditures. Family planning as a public policy cannot be imposed upon private citizens; it must be freely chosen. The question remains: what determines fertility in the private sector and what can government do to align policy with performance? Research and analysis is needed to develop policy in keeping with local customs, standards, and individual sensibilities. Should more money be spent on education, health care, or development? Research from poor countries is spotty and disorganized. More money is spent on reduction of infant mortality than on family planning. Fertility control is still a controversial subject. Funds supplied for population and health are barely matched by many developing countries whose priorities lean toward agriculture and nutrition. In Haiti the 5-year development plan ignores the interactions between population growth and economic development. If the current level of fertility continues, it will act as a deterrent to development. A population impact analysis of El Salvador examines the effect AID policies and programs have on fertility control. Implementation of a policy in its first stages is described for Guatemala. Family models and global models show touchpoints where public policy might interface with private practice. Rural development implies increased production, equal opportunities, and a low fertility rate. All 3 are interrelated and affected by demographic events. Rising incomes, below a threshold level, has increased the fertility rate among the very poor.
Population and development: a progress report on ILO research on population, labour, employment and income distribution. 4th ed.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, April, 1982. 98 p.Discusses the work of the International Labour Organization's (ILO) policies on labor employment and income distribution. It aims to further study the interrelationships between demographic change and employment, and incomes and poverty, with a view to contributing to policy design, analysis and choice. The economic-demographic relationship is viewed as being of primary importance in its effect on social systems. The program plans to identify the causes and consequences of temporary migration by means of a detailed sample survey. This project discusses women's productive activities and demographic issues. The former includes all activities which contribute to economic well being, whether or not they are market-oriented, and the latter includes fertility, mortality, and migration. It also attempts to analyze the variety of processes through which population and poverty are related. Other issues discussed are fertility, the economic roles of children, and aspects of household behavior. Current research projects of the ILO are listed.