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  1. 1
    080195

    Patterns of fertility in low-fertility settings.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. viii, 134 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/131)

    The most recent UN analysis of fertility levels and trends over the period 1965-89 in selected countries which have achieved fertility transition from high to low fertility is presented. The study is both descriptive and analytical. All low fertility countries analyzed, with the exceptions of Romania, Ireland, and the former USSR, had total fertility of 2.1 or less in 1988-89 and include the following: Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, Singapore, most European countries, Canada, the US, Australia, and New Zealand. Low fertility countries from other geographical regions were omitted due to the lack of countries with similar sociocultural contexts available for comparison purposes. Low-fertility countries with population under 300,000 were also not considered. Data coverage, quality, and availability; the measurement of fertility; and comparability problems both across countries and through time are discussed in the first chapter. Patterns of fertility decline are then presented with consideration given to period, cohort, overall, and adolescent fertility; population reproduction; age at child-bearing; number of births; birth order, and births by legitimacy status. A scenario of societal process is then hypothesized which may have favored or conditioned changes in reproductive values and modified the proximate determinants of fertility. Specifically, attention is given to demographic conditions, technological progress and economic development, the role and status of women, effects on couples and families, changing reproductive norms, marriage, divorce, contraception, abortion, diversity of conditions, and fertility policies. Analysis reveals a sharp fertility decline from 1965 to the mid-1980s followed by a stabilization of period fertility in some countries and upward fluctuations in several. This decline has affected in all groups, with greatest reductions at age 35 and over, and has been led by the greater practice of contraception and changing societal attitudes on marriage and reproduction. UN medium-variant projections foresee the population of more developed regions increasing by 12% over 1990-2025 versus 75% in less developed regions. Population aging should also be expected. Social and immigration policy are finally discussed in the context of these population trends.
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  2. 2
    037960

    [Population and development in the Republic of Zaire: policies and programs] Population et developpement en Republique du Zaire: politiques et programmes.

    Zaire. Departement du Plan. Direction des Etudes Macroeconomiques

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 9 p.

    The 1st census of Zaire, in July 1984, indicated that the population of 30 million was growing at a rate of at least 2.3%/year. The crude birth rate was estimated at 46/1000 and was believed to be higher in urban areas than in rural because of better health and educational conditions. The crude death rate was estimated at 16/1000 and the infant mortality rate at 106/1000. 46.5% of the population is under 15. The population is projected to reach 34.5 million in 1990, with urban areas growing more rapidly than rural. Zaire is at the stage of demographic transition where the gap between fertility and mortality is very wide. The consequences for national development include massive migration and rural exodus, unemployment and underemployment, illness, low educational levels, rapid urbanization, and increasing poverty. In the past decade, Zaire has undertaken a number of activities intended to improve living conditions, but as yet there is no explicit official policy integrating population and development objectives. In 1983, the Executive Council of Zaire organized a mission to identify basic needs of the population, with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). In 1985, the UNFPA developed a 5-year development plan. The UNFPA activities include demographic data collection, demographic policy and research, maternal-child health and family planning, population education, and women and development. In the area of data collection, the 1st census undertaken with UNFPA help has increased the availability of timely and reliable demographic data. The vital registration system is to be improved and a permanent population register to be developed to provide data on population movement. A National Population Committee is soon to be established to assist the Executive Council in defining a coherent population policy in harmony with the economic, social, and cultural conditions of Zaire. Demographic research will be conducted by the Demographic Department of the University of Kinshasa and the National Institute of Statistics. A primary health care policy has been defined to increase health coverage to 60% from the current level of 20%. Zaire has favored family planning services integrated with the primary health care system since 1979. At present 2 components of the Desirable Births" program are underway, the Desirable Births Service Project undertaken in 1983 and the Rural Health Project undertaken in 1982, both executed by the Department of Public Health with financing provided by US Agency for International Development. The RAPID (Resources for the Analysis of the Impact of Population on Development) program has been used since 1985 to inform politicians, technicians, and planners. Efforts have been underway since 1965 to include women in the development process, and a new family code is being studied which would give better protection to some rights of women and children.
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  3. 3
    111534
    Peer Reviewed

    Demography, destiny and population policies.

    Findlay AM; Borgegard LE

    APPLIED GEOGRAPHY. 1995 Jul; 15(3):197-202.

    This article considers the aftermath of the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development and the later Laxon, Sweden meeting of about 40 academic geographers, who addressed the implications of the Plan of Action for national policy. A recent International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) member synthesized conference impact on member nations. Martens from IUSSP offered the critique that the 381 recommendations were philosophically incoherent and poorly integrated and did not distinguish between government as a "doer of things" from government as "organizer and guarantor of a legal-institutional framework for allowing individuals and voluntary groups to seek improvements." This article discusses the apparent gulf between the views of population researchers and that of policy makers. It is reasoned that population policies do matter. The Club of Rome world model confirmed rapid population growth during 1972-90. Population policies in the past emphasized a societal perspective rather than an individual one. Policies impact on individual decision making. Most population geographers emphasize four features of social change. 1) Policy must address suitable measures for easing social, economic, and political tensions that arise in the temporary experience of high population growth. 2) More sensitive models of demographic behavior need to be developed, in order to account for the highly uneven patterns of fertility and mortality. Policy should not focus exclusively on family planning and should take into account the cultural and socioeconomic context. 3) Migration pressures from poor to rich countries have increased. Policy should address international migration. 4) People adapt quickly to new policy measures and apply policies effectively in their own life. Policies fail when the top-down approach does not include adequate research into values and behavior of the persons most affected by policy. These four points were discussed throughout this issue of "Applied Geography."
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  4. 4
    084889

    International migration in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa: research and research-related activities.

    Russell SS

    Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, 1993. v, 83 p.

    As a joint effort of the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe, the aim of this report was to identify international migration research and research-related activities in major political and institutional context, general overviews, and data sources, migration is discussed in terms of demography, international policies, economic and labor market aspects, highly skilled workers, development, integration, migration networks, ethnic relations, refugees and asylum seekers. East-west migration is also treated in a political and institutional context, with general overviews and data sources cited. The development and labor markets as well as ethnicity and return migration are considered. South-north migration is examined in a broad manner, with special emphasis on migration in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. The review is meant to serve as a useful resource and as a stimulus for dialogue. Basic data are missing on east-west migration and labor, migration patterns within the Middle-East, and north-south movements other than from North Africa. Basic institutional sources for data and research on international migration are available from the Council of Europe; the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the International Labor Organization; the International Organization for Migration; the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; the Intergovernmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies in Europe, North America, and Australia; and the European Community. 13 major publications are primary sources of data, of which the most extensive is OECD's SOPEMI Report. 9 sources of data pertain to demographic aspects of migration. The 1986 SOPEMI report and updates document national policies and practices of entry control in OECD member countries; the UN Population Division also published a survey of population policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities also publishes a document on noncommunity citizens. Researchers who have analyzed recent trends are identified, and research papers are cited for labor aspects of migration, highly skilled workers and migration, migration and development, integration and ethnic relations, migrant networks, refugees and asylum seekers, security, return migration, clandestine migration and ethical issues.
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  5. 5
    079151

    Population and the family. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 124-54. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    The UN Secretary-General's state of the population and family message is an expansive discussion of many issues. There are some historical perspectives and definitions of family type, socioeconomic change, and demographic changes affecting the family. Population trends are given for family size, more and less developed regions, the family life cycle, and family structures. Policies in industrialized countries are examined with a focus on the nuclear family, new marriage patterns and the sociological implications, and political responses to population growth. Family policy is also viewed from within transitional societies: demographic characteristics; specific populations such as those in Latin America, India and Indonesia; economic and social change; nuclear and extended families; international migration and urban-rural differences; marriage age changes; educational impacts from population growth; health programs; and family planning. Some basic principles for population policies are outlined. Parents must have the right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. Children have a right to education, and parents to literacy. Women have an equal right to employment. Women have a right to choose their own marriage partners. Social policy in order to ensure the welfare of the family relies on social and economic services, including care for the aged. Market expansion and economic policy also impacts on the family through increasing participation of marginal workers especially women and should be sensitive to the well-being of the family. Population pressure will affect housing shortages and inefficiencies in social welfare, for example. Traditional societies are defined as those not affected yet by modernization. Regional illustrations are given for tropical Africa, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The threshold hypothesis is advanced that even in traditional societies substantial mortality decline has occurred; the stages of demographic transition for specific countries has been shortened and inadequacy of data prevents a detailed estimation. Raising national and income/capita is seen as a goal of notional government. National governments have a responsibility to develop family and population policies. Human rights must be protected. The implications of growth patterns, the objectives of national policies, priorities, and universal criteria for a family policy are all discussed.
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  6. 6
    073744

    Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Leete R

    POPULATION RESEARCH LEADS. 1991; (39):1-17.

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by institutional change in ideas about families and schooling and material welfare, changes in the structure of governance, and changes in state ideology. Thailand's decline began in the 1960s and is attributed to social change, change in cultural setting, demand, and FP efforts. Modest declines characterize Malaysia and the Philippines, which have been surpassed by Myanmar and Viet Nam. The policy implications are that there are shortages in labor supply which can be remedied with labor migration, pronatalist policy, more capital intensive industries, and preparation for a changing economy.
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  7. 7
    071962

    Norway.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 222-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Norway's 1985 population of 4,142,000 is projected to grow to 4,261,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 20.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 21.1% were over the age of 60. 16.9% and 27.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 1.8 to -0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.7 to 12.2, while,e infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 11.4. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 71.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.0 years. Urban population will increase from 72.8% in 1985 to 79.9% overall by the year 2025. All of these levels and trends are considered acceptable by the government. Norway does not have an explicit population policy. A population committee was, however, created in 1981 to consider population and development, especially in the face of ongoing demographic aging. The government works to provide health for the population, maintain the level of immigration, and improve women's status. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  8. 8
    071961

    Nigeria.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 218-21. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Nigeria's 1985 population of 95,198,000 is projected to grow to 338,105,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 48.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.0% were over the age of 60. 38.8% and 4.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 33.3 to 22.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 48.5 to 64.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 17.1 to 6.8, while infant mortality will decline from 114.2 to 48.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.1 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 50.4 to 29.5. The 1981/2 contraceptive prevalence rate was 5.0, while the 1981/2 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.7 years. Urban population will increase from 23.0% in 1985 to 53.0% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Nigeria has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth, fertility, morbidity, mortality, and the rate of urbanization. Specific efforts to effect these changes include providing for family planning and maternal-child health, education, rural and urban development, enhanced women's status, and greater male responsibility. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  9. 9
    071960

    Niger.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 214-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Niger's 1985 population of 6,115,000 is projected to grow to 18,940,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.9% were over the age of 60. 38.0% and 4.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 28.1 to 20.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 42.5 to 58.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 22.9 to 9.4, while infant mortality will decline from 145.7 to 70.9. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.1 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 51.0 to 29.7. The 1959 female mean age at 1st marriage was 15.8 years. Urban population will increase from 16.2% in 1985 to 46.6% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Niger does not have an explicit population policy. Efforts have, however, been taken to improve health care, education, food supply, overall living conditions, and spatial distribution. Rural areas receive particular attention. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  10. 10
    071959

    Nicaragua.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 210-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Nicaragua's 1985 population of 3,272,000 is projected to grow to 9,219,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.1% were over the age of 60. 31.1% and 7.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 34.5 to 17.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 59.8 to 72.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 9.7 to 5.1, while infant mortality will decline from 76.4 to 26.9. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.9 to 2.7, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 44.2 to 22.9. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 27.0, while the 1971 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.2 years. Urban population will increase from 56.6% in 1985 to 77.9% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, and immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while morbidity, mortality, high emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Nicaragua does not have a explicit population policy. The government finds the country to be underpopulated, and therefore concentrates upon reducing morbidity, mortality, and urban migration, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  11. 11
    071958

    New Zealand.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 206-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    New Zealand's 1985 population of 3,318,000 is projected to grow to 4,202,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 24.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 14.6% were over the age of 60. 17.9% and 23.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 7.4 to 1.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.8 to 77.5 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.4 to 10.2, while infant mortality will decline from 12.1 to 6.1. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 1.9 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.7 to 11.9. The 1976 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.7 years. Urban population will increase from 83.7% in 1985 to 87.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high emigration is not. New Zealand does not have an explicit population policy. Demographic variables have, however, been influenced by policies toward the family, health care, and immigration. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  12. 12
    071957

    Netherlands.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 202-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Netherlands' 1985 population of 14,500,000 is projected to grow to 14,691,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 16.5% were over the age of 60. 15.1% and 30.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.8 to -2.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.7 to 13.0, while infant mortality will decline from 8.3 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.6 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 10.4. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 72.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.2 years. Urban population will increase from 88.4% in 1985 to 89.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high immigration and low emigration are not. The Netherlands has an explicit population policy. Fertility should be 15-30% below replacement level over several years in order to stop population growth, the level of immigration should be restricted, and a stationary population should ultimately be smaller than that presently realized. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  13. 13
    071956

    Nepal.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 198-201. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Nepal's 1985 population of 16,482,000 is projected to grow to 33,946,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 43.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.0% were over the age of 60. 28.6% and 7.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 23.3 to 11.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 45.9 to 61.8 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 18.4 to 9.0, while infant mortality will decline from 138.7 to 61.4. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.3 to 2.5, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 41.7 to 20.6. The 1986 contraceptive prevalence rate was 15.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 17.1 years. Urban population will increase from 7.7% in 1985 to 30.6% overall by the year 2025. Significant emigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, immigration. and spatial distribution are not. Nepal has an explicit population policy. Intervening both directly and indirectly, policy strives to control population growth through general development, sociocultural, economic, and environmental reform, and maternal-child health and family planning programs. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  14. 14
    071954

    Mozambique.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 190-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Mozambique's 1985 population of 13,961,000 is projected to grow to 37,154,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 43.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.3% were over the age of 60. 34.1% and 6.4% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.4 to 16.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 45.3 to 61.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 19.7 to 8.7, while infant mortality will decline from 153.5 to 71.6. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.1 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.1 to 25.5. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 17.6 years. Urban population will increase from 19.4% in 1985 to 52.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while morbidity, mortality, and spatial distribution are not. Mozambique does not have an explicit population policy. General attention has been given to economic and social restructuring, reducing morbidity and mortality through primary health care, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  15. 15
    071953

    Morocco.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 186-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Morocco's 1985 population of 21,941,000 is projected to grow to 40,062,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 41.0% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.7% were over the age of 60. 23.3% and 12.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.1 to 10.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 58.3 to 72.8 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 11.3 to 6.4, while infant mortality will decline from 96.5 to 23.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.1 to 2.2, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 36.4 to 16.7. The 1983/4 contraceptive prevalence rate was 26.0, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.3 years. Urban population will increase form 44.8% in 1985 to 71.0% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, spatial distribution, and low emigration are not. Morocco does not have an explicit population policy. Other policies of intervention are, however, in place to lower population growth and fertility, adjust spatial distribution, and reduce infant mortality. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  16. 16
    071952

    Mongolia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 182-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Mongolia's 1985 population of 1,908,000 is projected to grow to 4,539,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 41.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.2% were over the age of 60. @28.5% and 9.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 27.4 to 15.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 62.0 to 74.1 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.5 to 5.1, while infant mortality will decline from 53.0 to 17.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 5.1 to 2.5, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 35.9 to 20.6. Urban population will increase form 50.8% in 1985 to 69.6% overall by the year 2025. Immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, and fertility are not. Mongolia has an explicit population policy. Efforts to modify demographic variable are linked with steps toward social and economic restructuring, with a higher rate of population growth considered central to socioeconomic development. To effect such change, policy aims to reduce mortality and improve spatial distribution. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  17. 17
    071947

    Malta.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Malta's 1985 population of 383,000 is projected to grow to 459,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 23.9% of the population was ages 0-14 years, while 13.8% were over the age of 60. 19.5% and 23.7% are projected to be in these prospective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 7.3 to 1.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase fROm 71.7 to 76.9 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.1 to 11.2, while infant mortality will decline from 12.9 to 6.6. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 2.0 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 17.4 to 13.0. Urban population will increase from 85.3% in 1985 to 92.4% overall by the year 2025. All levels and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. In turn, Malta does not have an explicit population policy. Despite the lack of governmental intervention to influence the birth rate, the government recognizes the need keep rates low. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  18. 18
    071890

    Germany, Federal Republic of.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 14-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The Federal Republic of Germany's 1985 population of 60,877,000 is projected to shrink to 53,490,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 15.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 20.0% were over the age of 60. 16.0% and 31.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from -0.2 to -0.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.7 to 77.33 years, the crude death rate will increase from 12.3 to 15.4, while infant mortality will decline from 10.6 to 5.5. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.4 to 2.0, with a corresponding increase in the crude birth rate from 10.1 to 11.1. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 77.9, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.6 years. Urban population will increase from 85.5% in 1985 to 88.6% overall by they year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. The Republic does not have an explicit population policy. A pro-natalist program launched, however, in 1984 to encourage an additional 200,000 births/year. The government hopes to realize steady population growth, improve the situation of families, provide for individuals' health, and improve spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  19. 19
    071889

    German Democratic Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 10-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The German Democratic Republic's 1985 population of 16,766,000 is projected to grow to 17,570,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 18.1% were over the age of 60. 19.0% and 25.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to 0.11 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 72.1 to 77.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.1 to 12.5, while infant mortality will decline from 11.1 to 5.4. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.4 to 12.6. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage from 21.5 years. Urban population will increase from 77.0% in 1985 to 84.0% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth and fertility are not. The Republic has an explicit population policy. The government encourages families to have at least 2 or 3 children to effect population replacement. Promoting the family and maternal-child care, supporting large families and newly-wed couples, lowering mortality, and reducing differentials in living and working conditions are stressed. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  20. 20
    071888

    Gambia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 6-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Gambia's 1985 population off 643,000 is projected to grow to 1,494,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 42.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.0% were over the age of 60. 36.4% and 5.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 19.4 to 15.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 35.0 to 51.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 29.0 to 13.8, while infant mortality will decline from 174.1 to 93.8. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.4 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 48.4 to 29.3. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 1.0. Urban population will increase from 20.1% in 1985 to 48.4% overall by the year 2025. Emigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are not. Gambia has an explicit population policy. It aims to directly intervene to reduce population growth by lowering fertility, mortality, immigration, and rural-urban migration. Measures will include a combined approach of family planning and maternal-child health services, rural development, and employment programs. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  21. 21
    071887

    Gabon.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 2-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Gabon's 1985 population of 1,151,000 is projected to grow to 2,607,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 34.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 9.4% were over the age of 60. 33.5% and 8.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have grown from 15.7 to 17.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 49.0 to 65.0 years, the crude birth rate will decrease from 18.1 to 8.5, while infant mortality will decline from 111.9 to 46.7. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.5 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.8 to 25.4. The 1960 female mean age at 1st marriage was 17.7 years. Urban population will increase from 40.9% in 1985 to 69.6% overall by the year 2025. None of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Gabon has an explicit population policy. Its aims to increase the rate of population growth in order to enlarge the labor pool. Attempting to create an environment conducive to developing larger families, efforts focus upon improving conditions of family welfare and population distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  22. 22
    071886

    France.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 218-21. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    France's 1985 population of 54,621,000 is projected to grow to 58,431,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 21.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.7% were over the age of 60. 17.8% and 25.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to 0.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.5 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.2 to 11.8, while infant mortality will decline from 9.2 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.5 to 12.1. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 79.0, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.3 years. Urban population will increase from 73.4% in 1985 to 77.3% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. France has an explicit population policy. Concerned over the low growth rate of the native-born population, policy aims to increase fertility an population growth by improving the socioeconomic status of families, lowering the mortality rate, and restricting most types of immigration. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  23. 23
    071885

    Finland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 214-7. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Finland's 1985 population of 4,891,000 is projected to grow to 4,994,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.2% were over the age of 60. 16.5% and 28.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to -2.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.8 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.9 to 13.3, while infant mortality will decline from 6.2 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 10.9. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 80.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.6 years. Urban population will increase from 64.0% in 1985 to 83.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Comparatively high morbidity and mortality among males, however, is of concern. Causes for such excess mortality include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents, and suicide. Finland does not have an explicit population policy. Attention is presently directed toward morbidity and mortality, promoting and supporting the family, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  24. 24
    071884

    Fiji.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 210-3. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Fiji's 1985 population of 691,000 is projected to grow to 953,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 37.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.5% were over the age of 60. 20.8% and 17.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.7 to 6.1 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 68.9 to 76.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 5.4 to 7.3, while infant mortality will decline from 30.8 to 10.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.5 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 31.1 to 13.4. The 1974 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.0, while the 1976 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.6 years. Urban population will increase from 41.2% in 1985 to 67.4% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Fiji does not have an explicit population policy. The government does, however, have the intention to enact measures to control population growth and fertility. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  25. 25
    071883

    Ethiopia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 206-9. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Ethiopia's 1985 population of 43,557,000 is projected to grown to 122,285,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 44.8% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.4% were over the age of 60. 37.6% and 5.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 26.5 to 18.9 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 40.9 to 55.9 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 23.2 to 11.0, while infant mortality will decline from 154.9 to 81.5. the fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.7 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 49.7 to 29.9. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 2.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 17.7 years. Urban population will increase from 11.6% in 1985 or 33.8% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Ethiopia does not have an explicit population policy. Government policy instead focuses upon improving health and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measured taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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