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UNESCO/IPDC Regional Seminar on the Media and the African Family, Livingstone, Zambia, 6-10 January 1986. Report.
[Unpublished] 1986 Jan. v, 63 p.A seminar was planned and conducted by UNESCO's Population Division during January 1986 to promote increased media attention to issues which affect family stability and welfare. Especially important are the social, economic, and health problems created by high rates of population growth, urbanization, and migration. The seminar intended to give participants an opportunity to: examine the changing characteristics and emergin problems of the African family; review and appraise both past and current efforts on the part of the media to promote understanding of the interrelationships between socioeconomic conditions and family welfare, composition, stability, and size; and develop plans to increase the involvement and effectiveness of the media in promoting understanding of these interrelationships and in enabling families to make decisions and take action to enhance their welfare and stability. This report of the seminar is presented in 2 sections. The 1st section presents the participants' review of the changing nature of the African family over recent decades and the socioeconomic and sociocultural problems which have emerged as a consequence of these changes. Additionally, the 1st section reviews the extent to which communication systems in the region have tried to deal with the population related issues which affect family welfare. A "Communication Plan of Action" is proposed by the participants as a logical outcome of their 2 analyses and as a synthesis of their recommendations for the manner in which communication systems in the region must develop in order to meet ongoing and future population-family life changes. The Plan of Action identifies the following strategies as necessary to realize the increased involvement of the media in family issues and problems: institutionalizing population family life content within the curricula of media training institutions within the region; intensifying preservice and inservice training of media personnel to enable them to deal effectively with the demographic, social, and economic issues which impinge upon family welfare; highlighting population family life communication matters; ensuring that research on population family life issues be widely disseminated to media personnel and media based organizations; sensitizing political and administrative decisionmakers to population family life issues so that media communication can be supported and opportunities for media coverage can be extended; emphasizing in national development plans the importance of the media in generating public awareness of and response to the constraints placed upon national development and improved family welfare by rapid population growth and large-scale urban migration; and encouraging the involvement of community organizations in media programs. The 2nd section of the report includes the participants examination of the communication planning process.
In: Population structures and models: developments in spatial demography, edited by Robert Woods and Philip Rees. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England, George Allen and Unwin, 1986. 367-89.The fundamental question addressed in this chapter is the reasonableness of available projections of urbanization, such as those recently published by the United Nations....Drawing on simple models of urban and rural population dynamics, we propose two alternative methods for assessing projected urbanization paths in terms of their underlying assumptions. One focuses on the implied rural-urban migration flows, whereas the other emphasizes the association between urbanization and economic development. The case of the Asian Pacific region is given as an example. (EXCERPT)
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1987; (19-20):70-81.This is a survey of the U.N. Population Division's contributions to the study of urbanization and internal migration, related research, and publications. In order to review these contributions, the relevant U.N. publications are classified under five broad topics: "estimates and projections of urban, rural and city populations, including problems of data comparability and methods to measure internal migration; monitoring of trends in urbanization; estimates and analyses of migration as a component of urban and metropolitan growth; studies of demographic and socio-economic aspects of urbanization, and studies of demographic and socio-economic aspects of internal migration." (EXCERPT)
POPULI. 1986; 13(1):5-14.Within the next 50 years, the predominantly rural character of developing countries will shift as a result of rapid world urbanization. In 1970 the total urban population of the more developed world regions was almost 30 million more than in the less developed regions; however, by the year 2000 the urban population of developing countries will be close to double that in developed countries. A growing proportion of the urban population will be concentrated in the biggest cities. At the same time, the rural population in developing countries is expected to increase as well, making it difficult to reduce the flow of migrants to urban centers. Although urban fertility in developing countries tends to be lower than rural fertility, it is still at least twice as high as in developed countries. The benefits of urbanization tend to be distributed unevenly on the basis of social class, resulting in a pattern of skewed income and standard of living. Social conditions in squatter settlments and urban slums are a threat to physical and mental health, and the educational system has not been able to keep up with the growth of the school-aged population in urban areas. The problems posed by urbanization should be viewed as challenges to social structures and scientific technologies to adapt with concern for human values. It is suggested than 4 premises about the urbanization process should guide urban planners: 1) urban life is essential to the social nature of the modern world; 2) urban and rural populations should not be conceptualized in terms of diametrically opposed interest groups; 3) national policies will have an impact on urban areas, just as developments in the cities will impact on national development; and 4) the great cities of the world interact with each other, exchanging both trade and populations. The United Nations Family Planning Association stresses the need for 3 fundamental objectives: economic efficiency, social equity, and population balance.
Interurban Man: the dynamics of population in urban and rural life, statement made at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Vancouver, Canada, 2 June 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p.Human history up to this point has been one of movement. Gradually, the nature of this movement has changed. Population flow across countries has concentrated on the great cities. As man has become more mobile, his settlements have become more concentrated. By the end of this century, man will be predominantly urban. He might be called "Interurban Man." There is still a tendency to think of the city dweller as an aberration. People will not return to the land in any significant numbers unless taken by force; and the tendency to congregate will probably continue. A new perception of cities and towns requires a complementary change in our view of rural areas. Rural people are not "hopelessly backward peasants," nor are they all that is valuable in our life. The land on which they live and work is the essence of human survival. The shift in perception that is taking place now implies 1st that in the future urban life will be the norm, and 2nd that the "life-force" of a country or a region is less likely to be a single great city than a series of urban centers. The shift is marked by a change in approach to the problems of urbanization and industrialization. There is an increasing emphasis on rural development. Population programs have proved most effective when coupled with community involvement. How does international assistance fit in? UNFPA is already active in many aspects of human settlements and is extending its means of cooperation with local and international developmental agencies. So many aspects of development involve population considerations that it has become a major concern of the Fund to establish priorities for the use of our limited resources. A core program has been determined. The Fund supports collection and analysis of basic data on population growth and movement, and programs developed on the basis of this data.
Asian and Pacific Population Programme News. 1981; 10(1-2):25-8.Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) experts and heads of national population programs held their 4th meeting in Singapore from November 24-28, 1980. Program heads resolved to take steps to link their national activities in the population field with those of the ASEAN Population Program and carry out studies and a joint programming exercise in 1981. Progress reports on the following Phase 1 projects were given: 1) integration of population and rural development policies and programs in ASEAN countries including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand; 2) development of an inter-country modular training program for personnel in population and rural development; 3) multi-media support for population programs in the context of rural development in ASEAN countries; 4) utilization of research findings in population and family planning for policy formulation and program management in ASEAN countries; and 5) migration in relation to rural development. Phase 2 projects approved by ASEAN country participants were also discussed: 1) institutional development and exchange of personnel, 2) women in development, 3) developing and strengthening national population information systems and networks in ASEAN countries, 4) population and development dynamics and the man/resource balance, 5) studies on health and family planning in ASEAN countries, 6) population migration movement and development, and 7) development of ASEAN social indicators.
Comparative study on migration, urbanization and development in the ESCAP region. Country reports. 3. Migration, urbanization and development in Indonesia.
New York, UN, 1981. 202 p. (ST/ESCAP/169)The UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific undertook a comparative study of migration, urbanization, and development in the region. Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand participated in the project and other countries are expected to be added in the 1980s. This monograph outlined the major features of internal migration in Indonesia as revealed by data collected prior to the census and national surveys carried out or planned for the 1980s. Chapter 1 aimed to set the scene for the migration analysis which follows by examining similarities and differences in the economic, social, and demographic variables in the urban and rural sectors of Indonesia. Chapter 2 looks at the patterns of change in population distribution in Indonesia over the past 50 years. There is an examination of the changing patterns of urban growth and urbanization over the last 1/2 century in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the role of migration in the urbanization process. The next chapter examines some of the major sociodemographic and economic characteristics of migrants. Chapters 4 and 5 rely heavily on data which came from the 1971 census. The last chapter reviews the major problems relating to migration and urbanization in Indonesia and the policies which have followed which attempt to deal with those problems. The 1971 census was the main source of data used; however, migration data from the census suffer from shortcomings in detecting the level and nature of population mobility in Indonesia. Other limitations exist as well and these are all outlined in detail.
In: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Economic and demographic change: issues for the 1980's. Proceedings of the Conference, Helsinki, 1978. Vol. 2. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1979. 279-91.A set of rural-urban migration national indicators for developing countries has been developed by the U.N. Population Division for Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Asian countries have a rural out-migration rate that is higher, by 2-3/1000, than the rate for Latin American countries. Latin American countries have higher crude rates of out-migration than Asian, but the differences are explicable by other variables. Net rural out-migration is faster the higher the initial economic levels. Rural-urban migration is accelerated by high rates of economic growth, of agricultural productivity growth, and rural natural increase. In combination, these variables account for about 60% of the variance in levels of rural-urban migration in a sample of 29 developing countries with a population of 1.3 billion. When these factors are controlled, initially large regional differences are reduced to insignificance. Urbanization is closely associated with economic structural factors. Although the high rates of urbanization may cause alarm, antimigration policies should be made with the understanding that migration is an integrated role of locational changes in the modernization process. Rising levels of personal income, demand for agricultural products, and greater efficiency of production will continue to contribute to rural-urban migration. (Summary in FRE)
IDRC Reports. 1979 Sep; 8(3):12-3.Gaborone, the new capital of Botswana, has grown rapidly from 600 inhabitants in 1966 to 30,000 currently. People squatted in what was to have been a temporary labor camp zoned for industrial development. The Naledi camp was illegal until 1975 when the government dropped its zoning category and, with aid from the Canadian International Development Agency, began laying plans for turning 116 hectares of squatter land into 2000 individual plots housing 10,000 people. Naledi is now a suburban housing development that combines modern toilet facilities, street lighting, 2 primary schools, a health clinic, and a community center with traditional Tswana culture. A Certificate of Rights must be obtained for a plot of ground. The owner must construct a house within 12 months and pay a levy for road maintenance, water supply, and trash pickup. The Self-Help Housing Agency provides loans for building materials, payable in 15 years. The first thing a Naledi house-owner does is have it blessed by a minister of 1 of some 40 African churches in the settlement. The community is in the formative stages of organization. There is no single headman and no police. Elders are sometimes called upon to settle disputes. Naledi residents often view their plot as their second home. Many have their primary dwellings, and their head of cattle, in their native villages, living in Gabarone solely for economic reasons.
[Unpublished] 1977 Jun. 169 p.Population and development policy decisions must be based on accurate demographic data in order to correctly formulate priorities in budgets and expenditures. Family planning as a public policy cannot be imposed upon private citizens; it must be freely chosen. The question remains: what determines fertility in the private sector and what can government do to align policy with performance? Research and analysis is needed to develop policy in keeping with local customs, standards, and individual sensibilities. Should more money be spent on education, health care, or development? Research from poor countries is spotty and disorganized. More money is spent on reduction of infant mortality than on family planning. Fertility control is still a controversial subject. Funds supplied for population and health are barely matched by many developing countries whose priorities lean toward agriculture and nutrition. In Haiti the 5-year development plan ignores the interactions between population growth and economic development. If the current level of fertility continues, it will act as a deterrent to development. A population impact analysis of El Salvador examines the effect AID policies and programs have on fertility control. Implementation of a policy in its first stages is described for Guatemala. Family models and global models show touchpoints where public policy might interface with private practice. Rural development implies increased production, equal opportunities, and a low fertility rate. All 3 are interrelated and affected by demographic events. Rising incomes, below a threshold level, has increased the fertility rate among the very poor.
Tribune: A Women and Development Quarterly. 1983; (22):1-40.This special issue of "The Tribune" attempts to answer the many requests for information on the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. There has been a particular need for specific information on plans and preparations for the 1985 World Conference. Information is gathered in this issue on background to the Decade, the views of various governmental and nongovernmental groups concerning the issues and priorities of the Conference, the preparations underway, some of the major initiatives taken in the Decade, and some useful addresses for soliciting further information. The Program of Action for the 2nd half of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace focuses on ensuring women's increased participation in the realization of the objectives of the World Plan of Action. In particular, the World Plan of Action gives high priority to improving the conditions of the most disadvantaged groups of women, especially the rural and urban poor and the vast group of women workers in the tertiary sector. The Program of Action reiterates these priorities, particularly those disadvantaged because of socioeconomic and historic conditions, with emphasis on the rural and urban poor and on the subthemes: employment; education; and health. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) invited nongovermental organizations (NGOs); intergovernmental organizations; UN specialized agencies, organs, and organizations; regional commissions; and member states to submit their views on their contributions to the World Conference and the possible themes and issues of the Conference, in writing, to the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, for consolidated presentation to the preparatory body. Summaries of the views expressed by these groups are provided. Overall, there was an emphasis given by the Member States to the importance of involving women and women's organizations in the preparations for the Conference. In many replies it was indicated that the review and appraisal of the achievements of the Decade should be the primary task of the Conference. As a corollary, and of equal importance, that Conference should consider actions to be taken to resolve the problems that are faced by the women and to hasten their advancement.
New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.