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  1. 1

    [Recommendations of the Population World Plan of Action and of the United Nations Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development] Recomendaciones del Plan de Accion Mundial sobre Poblacion y del Grupo de Expertos de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo.

    De Oliveira O

    In: Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 21-31.

    Highlights are presented of the expert meeting on population distribution, migration, and development held in Hammamet, Tunisia, in March 1983 to prepare for the 1984 World Population Conference. Rafael Salas, Secretary General of the World Population Conference, indicated in the inaugural address of the meeting that changes in the past 10 years including the increasing importance of short-term movements, illegal migrations, and refugees would require international agreements for their resolution. In the area of internal migrations, Salas suggested that in addition to migration to metropolitan areas which continues to predominate, short-term movements of various kinds need to be considered in policy. Improvement in the quality of life of the urban poor is an urgent need. Leon Tabah, Adjunct Secretary General of the World Population Conference, pointed out that population distribution and migration had received insufficient attention in the 1975 World Population Conference, and that the World Population Plan of Action should be modified accordingly. Among the most important findings of the meeting were: 1) The Plan of Action overstressed the negative effects of urbanization and rural migration. Available evidence suggests that migration and urbanization are effects rather than causes of a larger process of unequal regional and sectorial development 2) The historical context of each country should be considered in research and planning regarding population movements. 3) Analyses of the determinants and consequences of migration were reexamined in light of their relationship to the processes of employment, capital accumulation, land tenure, technological change, ethnic and educational aspects, and family dynamics. 4) The need to consider interrelationships between urban rural areas in formulation of policy affecting population distribution was emphasized. 5) National development strategies and macroeconomic and sectoral policies usually have stronger spatial effects than measures specifically designed to influence population distribution, and should be examined to ensure compatability of goals. 6) Population distribution policies should not be viewed as ends in themselves but as measures to achieve larger goals such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities. 7) Multiple levels of analysis should be utilized for understanding the causes and consequences of population movements. 8) Programs of assistance should be organized for migrants and their families. 9) The human and labor rights of migrants and nonmigrants should be considered in policy formulation. 10) Policies designed to improve living and working conditions of women are urgently needed.
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  2. 2

    Statement by the Head of Delegation of the Republic of Korea at the International Conference on Population (ICP).

    Korea, Republic of. Ministry of Health and Social Affairs

    [Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 3 p.

    In a 5-year plan, the Korean government has integrated family planning programs, including maternal and child health, medical insurance, and social welfare programs, into its primary health ervices in order to reach its hard-core low-income residents in both urban and rural areas. The Korea Women's Development Institute was established in 1982 to enchance the status of women, and the Labor Standard Law has been revised to try to overcome deep-rooted son-preference among Korean parenst. Migration out of rural areas is creating rural manpower problems, and stepped-up rural community development programs are planned. Population predictions by the mid-21st century stand at 61 million, too great for a country with such limited natural resources to support. Korea recommends an exchange of information on population and development between all countries, the setting aside of 1% of each country's annual budget for national population programs, and convening the world population conference every 5 instead of every 10 years so that more progress can be made in solving the problem.
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  3. 3

    Interurban Man: the dynamics of population in urban and rural life, statement made at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Vancouver, Canada, 2 June 1976.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1976]. 6 p.

    Human history up to this point has been one of movement. Gradually, the nature of this movement has changed. Population flow across countries has concentrated on the great cities. As man has become more mobile, his settlements have become more concentrated. By the end of this century, man will be predominantly urban. He might be called "Interurban Man." There is still a tendency to think of the city dweller as an aberration. People will not return to the land in any significant numbers unless taken by force; and the tendency to congregate will probably continue. A new perception of cities and towns requires a complementary change in our view of rural areas. Rural people are not "hopelessly backward peasants," nor are they all that is valuable in our life. The land on which they live and work is the essence of human survival. The shift in perception that is taking place now implies 1st that in the future urban life will be the norm, and 2nd that the "life-force" of a country or a region is less likely to be a single great city than a series of urban centers. The shift is marked by a change in approach to the problems of urbanization and industrialization. There is an increasing emphasis on rural development. Population programs have proved most effective when coupled with community involvement. How does international assistance fit in? UNFPA is already active in many aspects of human settlements and is extending its means of cooperation with local and international developmental agencies. So many aspects of development involve population considerations that it has become a major concern of the Fund to establish priorities for the use of our limited resources. A core program has been determined. The Fund supports collection and analysis of basic data on population growth and movement, and programs developed on the basis of this data.
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  4. 4

    Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.

    This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
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  5. 5

    Report of the evaluation of programmes COL/78/PO3 - Rural Centers for Integrated Services and COL/78/PO4- Pilot Plan for the Regulation of Migratory flows in Colombia.

    Frieiro LB

    New York, UNFPA, 1981 Apr. 63 p.

    According to UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) policy on evaluations, the Office of Evaluation of UNFPA conducted an independent evaluation of the 2 projects, i.e., Rural Centers for Integrated Services and Pilot Plan for the Regulation of Migratory Flows in Colombia. The primary objective was to obtain information on project implementation and an analysis of how planned activities were carried out. Evaluation includes analysis of inputs and outputs, of the relationship among activities, and of the effectiveness of activities in realizing stated objectives. Evaluation also assesses duplication or lack of coverage of program activities and the effect this has on accomplishing the objectives. The Mission specifically analyzed the following documents: the original Project Document; the Project Progress Reports (PPRs); all relevant technical documents prepared by the projects; the original budgets; and approved revisions and expansions of the budgets and the actual implementation of budget provisions. The Mission also considered the position of the government of Colombia vis-a-vis the projects to assess whether there had been any changes in the perceived relevance of the objectives originally outlined for the projects. The staff of the Rural Centers for Integrated Services Project aimed to start providing social services to migrant workers in the 3 departments where the project was established during the harvest of 1979. The Mission did not see a concrete workplan for the activities with the migrants but this report had been prepared. Due to the short period of actual project implementation, the Mission could not reach a final conclusion on its validity to fulfill the objectives of providing assistance to migrant workers and to improving living conditions. The Mission did conclude that the project has an important role. A key element in the project's success is a continuous institutional support by the Ministry of Labor. The 1st phase of the 2nd project, the Pilot Plan for the Regulation of Migratory Flows, which was supposed to take 3 months, actually took about a year, but the delay was justified since a more complex analysis of the regions was undertaken and a large number of variables were analyzed. Although the project intended to establish an undefined number of associative forms of production (FAS) by the end of the period of UNFPA assistance, no FAS had yet been established by the project at the time of the Mission. Even if the FAS are established, there is no conclusive evidence that they will be a viable mechanism for attaining the longterm objective of the project with respect to the regulation of migration. The project has not yet tested the hypothesis that the FAS are a convenient mechanism to generate employment, nor has it been able to design regional strategies of employment that would consider both FAS and other forms of production.
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  6. 6

    1980 ASEAN programme roundup: a model in the making.

    Asian and Pacific Population Programme News. 1981; 10(1-2):25-8.

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) experts and heads of national population programs held their 4th meeting in Singapore from November 24-28, 1980. Program heads resolved to take steps to link their national activities in the population field with those of the ASEAN Population Program and carry out studies and a joint programming exercise in 1981. Progress reports on the following Phase 1 projects were given: 1) integration of population and rural development policies and programs in ASEAN countries including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand; 2) development of an inter-country modular training program for personnel in population and rural development; 3) multi-media support for population programs in the context of rural development in ASEAN countries; 4) utilization of research findings in population and family planning for policy formulation and program management in ASEAN countries; and 5) migration in relation to rural development. Phase 2 projects approved by ASEAN country participants were also discussed: 1) institutional development and exchange of personnel, 2) women in development, 3) developing and strengthening national population information systems and networks in ASEAN countries, 4) population and development dynamics and the man/resource balance, 5) studies on health and family planning in ASEAN countries, 6) population migration movement and development, and 7) development of ASEAN social indicators.
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  7. 7

    Rural development, migration and fertility: what do we know?

    Findley SE; Gundlach JH; Kent DP, Rhoda R

    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Research Triangle Institute and South East Consortium for International Development, 1979 Jun. 227 p. (Rural Development and Fertility Project; Contract AID/ta-CA-1)

    This document examines the available knowledge of migration and fertility, particularly among the rural poor. The chapters are as follows: "Who moves and why: an examination of current theory and evidence," "The cost-benefit model," "Non-economic theories," "Synthesis of the economic and non-economic approaches," "Migration and fertility: what do we know?" "Rural-urban migration: lower fertility for migrant women?" "Migration and fertility: change among women in the origin?" "Migration and fertility: proposed research items," "The likely migration and related rural fertility consequences of rural development programs," "Increased participation of the rural poor," "Expansion of off-farm employment opportunities," "Development of rural financial markets," "Extension of social services," "Development of rural marketing systems," and "Area development." Rural-urban migration can take any number of forms: migration to nearby or distant cities, to small, medium or large cities. Not all rural-urban migrants become unemployed in the capital city. All migrants do not permanently leave their rural villages; many leave and return several times. The different motives or structural situations underlying male vs. female migration may contribute to differential rural fertility responses to migration.
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  8. 8

    Kiribati: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 53 p. (Report No. 54)

    There is no comprehensive national population policy in Kiribati. Migration from the outer islands to urban South Tarawa is a problem. Overcrowding on the island will soon be severe. The National Development Plan aims at maintaining a balance between population and natural resources. The Mission proposes aid for population-related projects. The Central Planning Office coordinates the development activities. A National Population and Development Co-Ordinating Committee has been established. The government needs more staff to deal with overcrowding. The country's data base needs to be strengthened and upgraded. The Mission recommends that 1) another census be carried out in 1983; and 2) an inventory of research relating to Kiribati be maintained. The government has made efforts to provide an adequate health services network. The Mission recommends that a consultant be provided who specialized in health education and community participation. The family planning program has been diminishing in effectiveness. The Mission recommends support for: 1) a 3-year In-School Population Education Project; and 2) a project to focus on using communications programs to increase outer-island participation in population-related and development activites. The government has set up a Women's Interest Section to coordinate and develop policies and programs. The Mission recommends support for a 3-year project to aid the National Women's Federation. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities Youth Training Program should be supported. Protestants and Roman Catholics have promoted family life, health education and community-based activities.
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  9. 9

    Thailand: report of Second Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)

    Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
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  10. 10

    The creative role of non-governmental organizations in the population field, statement made at the International Consultation of Non-Governmental Organizations on Population Issues, Geneva, Switzerland, 13 September 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 6 p. (Speech Series No. 96)

    Since the UNFPA became operational in 1969, it has worked with and funded more non-governmental organization (NGO) programs than any other agency in the UN system for a comparable period of time. 10-15% of UNFPA's annual budget is used to assist national and international population activities in family planning, information, education, training and communications programs, research studies and surveys. It was the pioneering efforts of NGO's which eventually led to the development of global awareness of population problems and later governmental programs were patterned on the extensive research and studies on population issues conducted by NGO's. In the past 10 years there have been a number of important demographic changes which will continue and which will cause problems in the future. These include the enormous increase in the number of older people; the rapid urbanization in developing countries; rural and small city migration to urban areas; and the international migration of workers. More attention needs to be paid to the positive implications of population growth. It is hoped that NGO's will actively participate in the coming World Population Conference.
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