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Migration as a Risk Factor for HIV Infection among Youths in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from the DHS.
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2013 Jul; 648(1):136-158.Of the estimated 10 million youths living with HIV worldwide, 63 percent live in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on migration as a risk factor of HIV infection among the youths in sub-Saharan Africa. The study is based on multilevel modeling, applied to the youth sample of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted from 2003 to 2008 in nineteen countries. The analysis takes into account country-level and regional-level variations. The results suggest that across countries in sub-Saharan Africa, migrants have on average about 50 percent higher odds of HIV infection than nonmigrants. The higher risk among migrants is to a large extent explained by differences in demographic and socioeconomic factors. In particular, migrants are more likely to be older, to have been married, or to live in urban areas, all of which are associated with higher risks of HIV infection. The higher risk among youths who have been married is particularly pronounced among young female migrants.
Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], .  p. (UNEP Environment Brief No. 2)35% of the world's land consists of dry lands supporting 850 million people who face desertification risks. They tend to be already disadvantaged. These lands exist on every continent. 75% of Australia, 34% of Africa, 31% of Asia, 19% of Americas, and 2% of Europe face the risk of desertification. About 75% of dry lands are already desertified. Between 1985-75, the Sahara migrated southward about 100 km. Drought does not cause desertification but manmade forces do. These forces include poverty, inequitable distribution of resources, unsuitable land use and farming methods, overgrazing, intensive cash cropping onto marginal land best used for pastoralism, settling of previously nomadic peoples, and deforestation which tends to precede desertification. Desertified land can heal itself slowly once the forces that caused the desertification no longer exist. Encroaching dunes and sand sheets, deteriorating croplands and rangelands, water-logging and salinization of irrigated land, destruction of trees and shrubs, and deterioration in either the quantity or the quality of ground and surface water constitute desertification. Desertification contributed to the ruin of the Sumerian, Babylonian, Harappan, and Roman civilizations. Irrigation sparked 3 periods of rapid population growth in Iraq, 2 of which crashed due to water-logging and salinization (1800 B.C. and 900 A.D.). Desertification worsens the already existing poverty of the affected population thus forcing them to migrate to cities or other countries. Solutions lie in improved farming systems, sand dune fixation, and end to overgrazing and overcropping, erection of windbreaks and shelter belts, reforestation, and improved soil and water conservation. Each affected country must develop a national plan to fight desertification such as Tunisia did. The UN Environment Programme serves as a catalyst for doing so.